Church History, Books IV-VI

Author: Eusebius of Caesarea

(NOTE: The electronic text obtained from The Electronic Bible Society was not completely corrected. EWTN has corrected all discovered errors.)



[Translated by Rev. Arthur Cushman McGiffert, Ph.D. Professor of Church History in Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati.]


CHAPTER I: The Bishops of Rome and of Alexandria during the Reign of Trajan.(1)

1. About the twelfth year of the reign of Trajan the above-mentioned bishop of the parish of Alexandria(2) died, and Primus,(3) the fourth in succession from the apostles, was chosen to the office. 2. At that time also Alexandre,(4) the fifth in the line of succession from Peter and Pail, received the episcopate at Rome, after Evarestus had held the office eight years.(5)

CHAPTER II: The Calamities of the Jews during Trajan's Reign.

1. The teaching and the Church of our Saviour flourished greatly and made progress from day to day; but the calamities of the Jews increased, and they underwent a constant succession of evils. In the eighteenth year of Trajan's reign(1) there was another disturbance of the Jews, through which a great multitude of them preished.(2) 2. For in Alexandria and the rest of Egypt, and also in Cyrene,(3) as if incited by some terrible and factious spirit they rushed into seditious measures against their fellow inhabitants, the Greeks. The insurrection increased greatly, and in the following year, while Lupus was governor of all Egypt,(4) it developed into a war of no mean magnitude. 3. In the first attack it happened that they were victorious over the Greeks, who fled to Alexandria and imprisoned and slew the Jews that were in the city. But the Jews of Cyrene, although deprived of their aid, continued to plunder the land of Egypt and to devastate its districts,(5) under the leadership of Lucuas.(6) against them the emperor sent Marcius Turbo(7) witha foot and naval force and also with a force of cavalry. 4. He carried on the war against them for a long time and fought many battles, and slew many thousands of Jews, not only those of Cyrene, but also those who welt in Egypt and had come to the assistance of their king Lucuas. 5. But the emperor, fearing that the Jews in Mesopotamia would also make an attack upon the inhabitants of that country, commanded Lucius Quintus(8) to clear the province of them. And he having marched against them slew a great multitude of those that dwelt there; and in consequence of his success he was made governor of Judea by the emperor. These events are recorded also is these very words by the Greek historians that have written accounts of those times.(9)

CHAPTER III: The Apologists that wrote in Defense of the Faith during the Reign of Adrian.

1. After Trajan had reigned for nineteen and a half years(1) Aelius Adrian became his successor in the empire. To him Quadratus addressed a discourse containing an apology for our religion,(2) because certain wicked men(3) had attempted to trouble the Christians. the work is still in the hands of a great many of the brethren, as also in our own, and furnishes clear proofs of the man's understanding and of his apostolic orthodoxy.(4) 2. He himself reveals the early date at which he lived in the following words: "But the works of our Savious were always present,(5) for they were genuine: -- those that were healed, and those that were raised from the dead, who were seen not only when they were healed and when they were raised, but were also always present; and not merely while the Savior was on earth, but also after his death, they were alive for quite a while, so that some of them lived even to our day."(6) Such then was Quadratus.

3. Aristides also, a believer earnestly devoted to our religion, left, like Quadratus, an apology for the faith addressed to Adrian.(7) His work, too, has been preserved even to the present day by a great many persons.

CHAPTER IV: The Bishops of Rome and of Alexandria under the Same Emperor.(1)

In the third year of the same reign, Alexander,(2) bishop of Rome, died, after holding office ten years. His successor was Xystus.(3) About the same time Primus, bishop of Alexandria, died in the twelfth year of his episcopate,(4) and was succeeded by Justus.(5)

CHAPTER V: The Bishops of Jerusalem from the Age of our Saviour to the Period under Consideration.

1. The chronology of the bishops of Jerusalem I have nowhere found preserved in writing;(1) for tradition says that they were all short lived. 2. But I have learned this much from writings,(2) that until the siege of the Jews, which took place under Adrian,(3) there were fifteen bishops in succession there,(4) all of whom are said to be of Hebrew descent, and to have received the knowledge of Christ in purity, so that they were approved by those who were able to judge of such matters, and were deemed worthy of the episcopate. For their whole church insisted then of believing Hebrews who continued from the days of the apostles until the siege which took place at this time; in which siege the Jews, having again rebelled against the Romans, were conquered after severe battles. 3. But since the bishops o the circumcision ceased at this time, it is proper to give here a list of their names from the beginning. The first, then was James, the so-called brother of the Lord;(5) the second, Symeon;(6) the third, Justus; (7) the fourth, Zacchaeus;(8) the fifth, Tobias; the sixth, Benjamin; the seventhm John; the eighth, Matthias; the ninth, Philip; the tenth, Seneca;(9) the eleventh, Justsus; the twelfth, Levi; the thirteenth, Ephres;(10) the fourteenth, Joseph;(11) and finally, the fifteenth, Judas. 4. These are the bishops of Jerusalem that lived between the age of the apostles and the time referred to, all of them belonging to the circumcision.

5. In the twelfth year of the reign of Adrian, Xystus, having completed the tenth year of his episcopate, [12] was succeeded by Telesphorus, [13] the seventh in succession from the apostles. In the meantime, after the lapse of a year and some months, Eumenes, [14] the sixth in order, succeeded to the leadership of the Alexandrian church, his predecessor having held office eleven years. [15]

CHAPTER VI: The Last Siege of the Jews under Adrian.

1. As the rebellion of the Jews at this time grew much more serious, [1] Rufus, governor of Judea, after an auxiliary force had been sent him by the emperor, using their madness as a pretext, proceeded against them without mercy, and destroyed indiscriminately thousands of men and women and children, and in accordance with the laws of war reduced their country to a state of complete subjection. 2. The leader of the Jews at this time was a man by the name of Barcocheba [2] (which signifies a star), who possessed the character of a robber and a murderer, but nevertheless, relying upon his name, boasted to them, as if they were slaves, that he possessed wonderful powers; and he pretended that he was a star that had come down to them out of heaven to bring them light in the midst of their misfortunes. 3. The war raged most fiercely in the eighteenth year of Adrian, [3] at the city of Bithara, [4] which was a very secure fortress, situated not far from Jerusalem. When the siege had lasted a long time, and the rebels had been driven to the last extremity by hunger and thirst, and the instigator of the rebellion had suffered his just punishment, the whole nation was prohibited from this time on by a decree, and by the commands of Adrian, from ever going up to the country about Jerusalem. For the emperor gave orders that they should not even see from a distance the land of their fathers. Such is the account of Aristo of Pella. [5] 4. And thus, when the city had been emptied of the Jewish nation and had suffered the total destruction of its ancient inhabitants, it was colonized by a different race, and the Roman city which subsequently arose changed its name and was called Aelia, in honor of the emperor Aelius Adrian. And as the church there was now composed of Gentiles, the first one to assume the government of it after the bishops of the circumcision was Marcus. [6]

CHAPTER VII: The Persons that became at that Time Leaders of Knowledge falsely so-called. [1]

1. As the churches throughout the world were now shining like the most brilliant stars, and faith in our Saviour and Lord Jesus Christ was flourishing among the whole human race, [2] the demon who hates everything that is good, and is always hostile to the truth, and most bitterly opposed to the salvation of man, turned all his arts against the Church. [3] In the beginning he armed himself against it with external persecutions. 2. But now, being shut off from the use of such means, [4] he devised all sorts of plans, and employed other methods in his conflict with the Church, using base and deceitful men as instruments for the ruin of souls and as ministers of destruction. Instigated by him, impostors and deceivers, assuming the name of our religion, brought to the depth of ruin such of the believers as they could win over and at the same time, by means of the deeds which they practiced, turned away from the path which leads to the word of salvation those who were ignorant of the faith. 3. Accordingly there proceeded from that Menander, whom we have already mentioned as the successor of Simon, [5] a certain serpent-like power, double-tongued and two-headed, which produced the leaders of two different heresies, Saturninus, an Antiochian by birth, [6] and Basilides, an Alexandrian. [7] The former of these established schools of godless heresy in Syria, the latter in Alexandria. 4. Irenaeus states [8] that the false teaching of Saturninus agreed in most respects with that of Menander, but that Basilides, under the pretext of unspeakable mysteries, invented monstrous fables, and carried the fictions of his impious heresy quite beyond bounds. 5. But as there were at that time a great many members of the Church [9] who were fighting for the truth and defending apostolic and ecclesiastical doctrine with uncommon eloquence, so there were some also that furnished posterity through their writings with means of defense against the heresies to which we have referred. [10] 6. Of these there has come down to us a most powerful refutation of Basilides by Agrippa Castor, [11] one of the most renowned writers of that day, which shows the terrible imposture of the man. 7. While exposing his mysteries he says that Basilides wrote twenty-four books upon the Gospel, [12] and that he invented prophets for himself named Barcabbas and Barcoph, [13] and others that had no existence, and that he gave them barbarous names in order to amaze those who marvel at such things; that he taught also that the eating of meat offered to idols and the unguarded renunciation of the faith in times of persecution were matters of indifference; [14] and that he enjoined upon his followers, like Pythagoras, a silence of five years. [15] 8. Other similar things the above-mentioned writer has recorded concerning Basilides, and has ably exposed the error of his heresy. 9. Irenaeus also writes [16] that Carpocrates was a contemporary of these men, and that he was the father of another heresy, called the heresy of the Gnostics, [17] who did not wish to transmit any longer the magic arts of Simon, as that one [18] had done, in secret, but openly. [19] For they boasted -- as of something great -- of love potions that were carefully prepared by them, and of certain demons that sent them dreams and lent them their protection, and of other similar agencies; and in accordance with these things they taught that it was necessary for those who wished to enter fully into their mysteries, or rather into their abominations, to practice all the worst kinds of wickedness, on the ground that they could escape the cosmic powers, as they called them, in no other way than by discharging their obligations to them all by infamous-conduct. 10. Thus it came to pass that the malignant demon, making use of these ministers, on the one hand enslaved those that were so pitiably led astray by them to their own destruction, while on the other hand he furnished to the unbelieving heathen abundant opportunities for slandering the divine word, inasmuch as the reputation of these men brought infamy upon the whole race of Christians. 11. In this way, therefore, it came to pass that there was spread abroad in regard to us among the unbelievers of that age, the infamous and most absurd suspicion that we practiced unlawful commerce with mothers and sisters, and enjoyed impious feasts. [20] 12. He did not, however, long succeed in these artifices, as the truth established itself and in time shone with great brilliancy. 13. For the machinations of its enemies were refuted by its power and speedily vanished. One new heresy arose after another, and the former ones always passed away, and now at one time, now at another, now in one way, now in other ways, were lost in ideas of various kinds and various forms. But the splendor of the catholic and only true Church, which is always the same, grew in magnitude and power, and reflected its piety and simplicity and freedom, and the modesty and purity of its inspired life and philosophy to every nation both of Greeks and of Barbarians. 14. At the same time the slanderous accusations which had been brought against the whole Church[21] also vanished, and there remained our teaching alone, which has prevailed over all, and which is acknowledged to be superior to all in dignity and temperance, and in divine and philosophical doctrines. So that none of them now ventures to affix a base calumny upon our faith, or any such slander as our ancient enemies formerly delighted to utter. 15. Nevertheless, in those times the truth again called forth many champions who fought in its defense against the godless heresies, refuting them not only with oral, but also with written arguments. [22]

CHAPTER VIII: Ecclesiastical Writers.

1. Among these Hegesippus was well-known. [1] We have already quoted his words a number of times, [2] relating events which happened in the time of the apostles according to his account. 2. He records in five2 books the true tradition of apostolic doctrine in a most simple style, and he indicates the time in which he flourished when he writes as follows concerning those that first set up idols: "To whom they erected cenotaphs and temples, as is done to the present day. Among whom is also Antinous, [3] a slave of the Emperor Adrian, in whose honor are celebrated also the Antinoian games, which were instituted in our day. For he [i.e. Adrian] also founded a city named after Antinous, [4] and appointed prophets."

3. At the same time also Justin, a genuine lover of the true philosophy, was still continuing to busy himself with Greek literature. [5] He indicates (his time in the Apology which he addressed to Antonine, where he writes as follows: [6] "We do not think it out of place to mention here Antinous also, who lived in our day, and whom all were driven by fear to worship as a god, although they knew who he was and whence he came." 4. The same writer, speaking of the Jewish war which took place at that time, adds the following: [7] "For in the late Jewish war Barcocheba, the leader of the Jewish rebellion, commanded that Christians alone [8] should be visited with terrible punishments unless they would deny and blaspheme Jesus Christ." 5. And in the same work he shows that his conversion from Greek philosophy to Christianity [9] was not without reason, but that it was the result of deliberation on his part. His words are as follows: [10] "For I myself, while I was delighted with the doctrines of Plato, and heard the Christians slandered, and saw that they were afraid neither of death nor of anything else ordinarily looked upon as terrible, concluded that it was impossible that they could be living in wickedness and pleasure. For what pleasure-loving or intemperate man, or what man that counts it good to feast on human flesh, could welcome death that he might be deprived of his enjoyments, and would not rather strive to continue permanently his present life, and to escape the notice of the rulers, instead of giving himself up to be put to death?" 6. The same writer, moreover, relates that Adrian having received from Serennius Granianus, [11] a most distinguished governor, a letter [12] in behalf of the Christians, in which he stated that it was not just to slay the Christians without a regular accusation and trial, merely for the sake of gratifying the outcries of the populace, sent a rescript [13] to Minucius Fundanus, [14] proconsul of Asia, commanding him to condemn no one without an indictment and a well-grounded accusation. 7. And he gives a copy of the epistle, preserving the original Latin in which it was written, [15] and prefacing it with the following words: [18] "Although from the epistle of the greatest and most illustrious Emperor Adrian, your father, we have good ground to demand that you order judgment to be given as we have desired, yet we have asked this not because it was ordered by Adrian, but rather because we know that what we ask is just. And we have subjoined the copy of Adrian's epistle that you may know that we are speaking the truth in this matter also. And this is the copy." 8. After these words the author referred to gives the rescript in Latin, which we have translated into Greek as accurately as we could. [17] It reads as follows:

CHAPTER IX: The Epistle of Adrian, decreeing that we should not be punished without a Trial.

1. "To Minucius Fundanus. I have received an epistle, [1] written to me by Serennius Granianus, a most illustrious man, whom you have succeeded. It does not seem right to me that the matter should be passed by without examination, lest the men [2] be harassed and opportunity be given to the informers for practicing villainy. 2. If, therefore, the inhabitants of the province can clearly sustain this petition against the Christians so as to give answer in a court of law, let them pursue this course alone, but let them not have resort to men's petitions and outcries. For it is far more proper, if any one wishes to make an accusation, that you should examine into it. 3. If any one therefore accuses them and shows that they are doing anything contrary to the laws, do you pass judgment according to the heinousness of the crime. [3] But, by Hercules! if any one bring an accusation through mere calumny, decide in regard to his criminality, [4] and see to it that you inflict punishment." [5] Such are the contents of Adrian's rescript.

CHAPTER X: The Bishops of Rome and of Alexandria during the Reign of Antoninus.

Adrian having died after a reign of twenty-one years, [1] was succeeded in the government of the Romans by Antoninus, called the Pious. In the first year of his reign Telesphorus [2] died in the eleventh year of his episcopate, and Hyginus became bishop of Rome. [3] Irenaeus records that Telesphorus' death was made glorious by martyrdom, [4] and in the same connection he states that in the time of the above- mentioned Roman bishop Hyginus, Valentinus, the founder of a sect of his own, and Cerdon, the author of Marcion's error, were both well known at Rome. [5] He writes as follows: [6]

CHAPTER XI: The Heresiarchs of that Age.

1. "For Valentinus came to Rome under Hyginus, flourished under Pius, and remained until Anicetus. [1] Cerdon [2] also, Marcion's [3] predecessor, entered the Church in the time of Hyginus, the ninth [4] bishop, and made confession, and continued in this way, now teaching in secret, now making confession again, and now denounced for corrupt doctrine and withdrawing[5] from the assembly of the brethren." These words are found in the third book of the work Against Heresies. 2. And again in the first book he speaks as follows concerning Cerdon: [6] " A certain Cerdon, who had taken his system from the followers of Simon, and had come to Rome under Hyginus, the ninth in the episcopal succession from the apostles,[7] taught that the God proclaimed by the law and prophets was not the father of our Lord Jesus Christ. For the former was known, but the latter unknown; and the former was just, but the latter good.[8] Marcion of Pontus succeeded Cerdon and developed his doctrine, uttering shameless blasphemies." 3. The same Irenaeus unfolds with the greatest vigor the unfathomable abyss of Valentinus' errors in regard to matter, and reveals his wickedness, secret and hidden like a serpent lurking in its nest. 4. And in addition to these men he says that there was also another that lived in that age, Marcus by name,[9] who was remarkably skilled in magic arts. And he describes also their unholy initiations and their abominable mysteries in the following words: [10] 5. "For some of them prepare a nuptial couch and perform a mystic rite with certain forms of expression addressed to those who are being initiated, and they say that it is a spiritual marriage which is celebrated by them, after the likeness of the marriages above. But others lead them to water, and while they baptize them they repeat the following words: Into the name of the unknown father of the universe, into truth, the mother of all things, into the one that descended upon Jesus.[11] Others repeat Hebrew names[12] in order the better to confound those who are being initiated."

6. But Hyginus[13] having died at the close of the fourth Year of his episcopate, Pius[14] succeeded him in the government of the church of Rome. In Alexandria Marcus [15] was appointed pastor, after Eumenes[16] had filled the office thirteen years in all. And Marcus having died after holding office ten years was succeeded by Celadion[17] in the government of the church of Alexandria. 7. And in Rome Pius died in the fifteenth year of his episcopate, and Anicetus[18] assumed the leadership of the Christians there. Hegesippus records that he himself was in Rome at this time, and that he remained there until the episcopate of Eleutherus.[19]

8. But Justin [20] was especially prominent in those days. In the guise of a philosopher[21] he preached the divine word, and contended for the faith in his writings. He wrote also a work against Marcion,[22] in which he states that the latter was alive at the time he wrote. 9. He speaks as follows :[23] "And there is a certain Marcion[24] of Pontus,[25] who is even now still teaching his followers to think that there is some other God greater than the creator. And by the aid of the demons[26] he has persuaded many of every race of men [27] to utter blasphemy, and to deny that the maker of this universe is the father of Christ, and to confess that some other, greater than he, was the creator.[28] And all who followed them are, as we have said,[29] called Christians, just as the name of philosophy is given to philosophers, although they may have no doctrines in common." 10. To this he adds: [30] " And we have also written a work against all the heresies that have existed,[31] which we will give you if you wish to read it."

11. But this same Justin contended most successfully against the Greeks, and addressed discourses containing an apology for our faith to the Emperor Antoninus, called Pius, and to the Roman senate.[32] For he lived at Rome. But who and whence he was he shows in his Apology in the following words.35

CHAPTER XII: The Apology of Justin addressed to Antoninus.

"To the Emperor Titus AEIius Adrian Antoninus Pius Caesar Augustus,[1] and to Verissimus his son,[2] the philosopher, and to Lucius the philosopher,[3] own son of Caesar and adopted son of Pius, a lover of learning, and to the sacred senate and to the whole Roman people, I, Justin, son of Priscus and grandson of Bacchius,[4] of Flavia Neapolis in Palestine, Syria, present this address and petition in behalf of those men of every nation who are unjustly hated and persecuted, I myself being one of them." And the same emperor having learned also from other brethren in Asia of the injuries of all kinds which they were suffering from the inhabitants of the province, thought it proper to address the following ordinance to the Common Assembly s of Asia.

CHAPTER XIII: The Epistle of Antoninus to the Common Assembly of Asia in Regard to our Doctrine.[1]

1. "THE Emperor Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus,[2] Armenicus, Pontifex Maximus, for the fifteenth time Tribune, for the third time Consul, to the Common Assembly of Asia, Greeting. 2. I know that the gods also take care that such persons do not escape detection. For they would much rather punish those who will not worship them than you would. 3. But you throw them into confusion, and while you accuse them of atheism you only confirm them in the opinion which they hold. It would indeed be more desirable for them, when accused, to appear to die for their God, than to live. Wherefore also they come off victorious when they give up their lives rather than yield obedience to your commends. 4. And in regard to the earthquakes which have been and are still taking place,[3] it is not improper to admonish you who lose heart whenever they occur, and nevertheless ate accustomed to compare your conduct with theirs.[4] 5. They indeed become the more confident in God, while you, during the whole time, neglect, in apparent ignorance, the other gods and the worship of the Immortal, and oppress and persecute even unto death the Christians who worship him.[5] 6. But in regard to these persons, many of the governors of the provinces wrote also to our most divine father, to whom he wrote in reply that they should not trouble these people unless it should appear that they were attempting something affecting the Roman government.[6] And to me also many have sent communications concerning these men, but I have replied to them in the same way that my father did. 7. But if any one still persists in bringing accusations against any of these people as such, the person who is accused shall be acquitted of the charge, even if it appear that he is one of them, but the accuser shall be punished.[7] Published in Ephesus in the Common Assembly of Asia." 8. To these things Melito,[8] bishop of the church of Sardis, and a man well known at that time, is a witness,[9] as is clear from his words in the Apology which he addressed to the Emperor Verus in behalf of our doctrine.

CHAPTER XIV: The Circumstances related of Polycarp, a Friend of the Apostles.

1. AT this time, while Anicetus was at the head of the church of Rome,[1] Irenaeus relates that Polycarp, who was still alive, was at Rome,[2] and that he had a conference with Anicetus on a question concerning the day of the paschal feast.[3] 2. And the same writer gives another account of Polycarp which I feel constrained to add to that which has been already related in regard to him. The account is taken from the third book of Irenaeus' work Against Heresies, and is as follows: 3. "But Polycarp 5 also was not only instructed by apostles, and acquainted with many that had seen Christ, but was also appointed by apostles in Asia bishop of the church of Smyrna.[6] 4. We too saw him in our early youth; for he lived a long time, and died, when a very old man, a glorious and most illustrious martyr's death,[7] having always taught the things which he had learned from the apostles, which the Church also hands down, and which alone are true.[8] 5. To these things all the Asiatic churches testify, as do also those who, down to the present time, have succeeded Polycarp,[9] who was a much more trustworthy and certain witness of the truth than Valentinus and Marcion and the rest of the heretics.[10] He also was in Rome in the time of Anicetus [11] and caused many to turn away from the above-mentioned heretics to the Church of God, proclaiming that he had received from the apostles this one and only system of truth which has been transmitted by the Church. 6. And there are those that heard from him that John, the disciple of the Lord, going to bathe in Ephesus and seeing Cerinthus within, ran out of the bathhouse without bathing, crying, 'Let us flee, lest even the bath fall, because Cerinthus, the enemy of the truth, is within.'[12] 7. And Polycarp himself, when Marcion once met him[13] and said, 'Knowest[14] thou us?' replied, 'I know the first born of Satan.' Such caution did the apostles and their disciples exercise that they might not even converse with any of those who perverted the truth; as Paul also said, 'A man that is a heretic after the first and second admonition, reject; knowing that he that is such is subverted, and sinneth, being condemned of himself.'[15] 8. There is also a very powerful epistle of Polycarp written to the Philippians,[16] from which those that wish to do so, and that are concerned for their own salvation, may learn the character of his faith and the preaching of the truth." 9. Such is the account of Irenaeus. But Polycarp, in his above-mentioned epistle to the Philippians, which is still extant, has made use of certain testimonies drawn from the First Epistle of Peter.[17]

10. And when Antoninus, called Pius, had completed the twenty-second year of his reign,[18] Marcus Aurelius Verus, his son, who was also called Antoninus, succeeded him, together with his brother Lucius.[19]

CHAPTER XV: Under Verus,[1] Polycarp with Others suffered Martyrdom at Smyrna.

1. At this time,[2] when the greatest persecutions were exciting Asia, Polycarp ended his life by martyrdom. But I consider it most important that his death, a written account of which is still extant, should be recorded in this history. 2. There is a letter, written in the name of the church over which he himself presided,[3] to the parishes in Pontus,[4] which relates the events that befell him, in the following words: " 3. The church of God which dwelleth at Smyma to the church of God which dwelleth in Philomelium,[5] and to all the parishes of the holy catholic Church[6] in every place; mercy and peace and love from God the Father and our Lord Jesus Christ be multiplied. We write[7] unto you, brethren, an account of what happened to those that suffered martyrdom and to the blessed Polycarp, who put an end to the persecution, having, as it were, sealed it by his martyrdom." 4. After these words, before giving the account of Polycarp, they record the events which befell the rest of the martyrs, and describe the great firmness which they exhibited in the midst of their pains. For they say that the bystanders were struck with amazement when they saw them lacerated with scourges even to the innermost veins and arteries, so that the hidden inward parts of the body, both their bowels and their members, were exposed to view; and then laid upon sea-shells and certain pointed spits, and subjected to every species of punishment and of torture, and finally thrown as food to wild beasts. 5. And they record that the most noble Germanicus [8] especially distinguished himself, overcoming by the grace of God the fear of bodily death implanted by nature. When indeed the proconsul [9] wished to persuade him, and urged his youth, and besought him, as he was very young and vigorous, to take compassion on himself, he did not hesitate, but eagerly lured the beast toward himself, all but compelling and irritating him, in order that he might the sooner be freed from their unrighteous and lawless life. 6. After his glorious death the whole multitude marveling at the bravery of the God- beloved martyr and at the fortitude of the whole race of Christians, began to cry out suddenly, "Away with the atheists; [10] let Polycarp be sought." 7. And when a very great tumult arose in consequence of the cries, a certain Phrygian, Quintus [11] by name, who was newly come from Phrygia, seeing the beasts and the additional tortures, was smitten with cowardice and gave up the attainment of salvation. 8. But the above- mentioned epistle shows that he, too hastily and without proper discretion, had rushed forward with others to the tribunal, but when seized had furnished a clear proof to all, that it is not right for such persons rashly and recklessly to expose themselves to danger. Thus did matters turn out in connection with them.

9. But the most admirable Polycarp, when he first heard of these things, continued: undisturbed, preserved a quiet and unshaken mind, and determined to remain in the city. But being persuaded by his friends who en-treated and exhorted him to retire secretly, he went out to a farm not far distant from the city and abode there with a few companions, night and day doing nothing but wrestle with the Lord in prayer, beseeching and imploring, and asking peace for the churches throughout the whole world. For this was always his custom. 10. And three days before his arrest, while he was praying, he saw in a vision at night the pillow under his head suddenly seized by fire and consumed; and upon this awakening he immediately interpreted the vision to those that were present, almost foretelling that which was about to happen, and declaring plainly to those that were with him that it would be necessary for him for Christ's sake to die by fire.

11. Then, as those who were seeking him pushed the search with vigor, they say that he was again constrained by the solicitude and love of the brethren to go to another farm. Thither his pursuers came after no long time, and seized two of the servants there, and tortured one of them for the purpose of learning from him Polycarp's hiding-place. 12. And coming late in the evening, they found him lying in an upper room, whence he might have gone to another house, but he would not, saying, "The will of God be done." 13. And when he learned that they were present, as the account says, he went down and spoke to them with a very cheerful and gentle countenance, so that those who did not already know the man thought that they beheld a miracle when they observed his advanced age and the gravity and firmness of his bearing, and they marveled that so much effort should be made to capture a man like him.

14. But he did not hesitate, but immediately gave orders that a table should be spread for them. Then he invited them to partake of a bounteous meal, and asked of them one hour that he might pray undisturbed. And when they had given permission, he stood up and prayed, being full of the grace of the Lord, so that those who were present and heard him praying were amazed, and many of them now repented that such a venerable and godly old man was about to be put to death. 15. In addition to these things the narrative concerning him contains the following account: "But when at length he had brought his prayer to an end, after remembering all that had ever come into contact with him, small and great, famous and obscure, and the whole catholic Church throughout the world, the hour of departure being come, they put him upon an ass and brought him to the city, it being a great Sabbath. [12] And he was met by Herod, [13] the captain of police, [14] and by his father Nicetes, who took him into their carriage, and sitting beside him endeavored to persuade him, saying, ' For what harm is there in saying, Lord Caesar, and sacrificing and saving your life?' 16. He at first did not answer; but when they persisted, he said, ' I am not going to do what you advise me.' And when they failed to persuade him, they uttered dreadful words, and thrust him down with violence, so that as he descended from the carriage he lacerated his shin. But without turning round, he went on his way promptly and rapidly, as if nothing had happened to him, and was taken to the stadium. 17. But there was such a tumult in the stadium that not many heard a voice from heaven, which came to Polycarp as he was entering the place: ' Be strong, Polycarp, and play the man.' [15] And no one saw the speaker, but many of our people heard the voice. 18. And when he was led forward, there was a great tumult, as they heard that Polycarp was taken. Finally, when he came up, the proconsul asked if he were Polycarp. And when he confessed that he was, he endeavored to persuade him to deny, saying, ' Have regard for thine age,' and other like things, which it is their custom to say: 19. ' Swear by the genius of Caesar; [16] repent and say, Away with the Atheists.' But Polycarp, looking with dignified countenance upon the whole crowd that was gathered in the stadium, waved his hand to them, and groaned, and raising his eyes toward heaven, said, ' Away with the Atheists.' 20. But when the magistrate pressed him, and said, Swear, and I will release thee; revile Christ,' Polycarp said,' Fourscore and six years [17] have I been serving him, and he hath done me no wrong; how then can I blaspheme my king who saved me?

21. "But when he again persisted, and said, 'Swear by the genius of Caesar,' Polycarp replied, ' If thou vainly supposest that I will swear by the genius of Caesar, as thou sayest, feigning to be ignorant who I am, hear plainly: I am a Christian. But if thou desirest to learn the doctrine of Christianity, assign a day and hear.' 22. The proconsul said, ' Persuade the people.' But Polycarp said, 'As for thee, I thought thee worthy of an explanation; for we have been taught to render to princes and authorities ordained by God the honor that is due, [18] so long as it does not injure us; [19] but as for these, I do not esteem them the proper persons to whom to make my defense.' [20] 23. But the proconsul said, ' I have wild beasts; I will throw thee to them unless thou repent.' But he said, ' Call them; for repentance from better to worse is a change we cannot make. But it is a noble thing to turn from wickedness to righteousness.' 24. But he again said to him, ' If thou despisest the wild beasts, I will cause thee to be consumed by fire, unless thou repent.' But Polycarp said, ' Thou threatenest a fire which burneth for an hour, and after a little is quenched; for thou knowest not the fire of the future judgment and of the eternal punishment which is reserved for the impious. But why dost thou delay? Do what thou wilt.' 25. Saying these and other words besides, he was filled with courage and joy, and his face was suffused with grace, so that not only was he not terrified and dismayed by the words that were spoken to him, but, on the contrary, the proconsul was amazed, and sent his herald to proclaim three times in the midst of the stadium: ' Polycarp hath confessed that he is a Christian.' 26. And when this was proclaimed by the herald, the whole multitude, both of Gentiles and of Jews, [21] who dwelt in Smyrna, cried out with ungovernable wrath and with a great shout, 'This is the teacher of Asia, the father of the Christians, the over-thrower of our gods, who teacheth many not to sacrifice nor to worship.' 27. When they had said this, they cried out and asked the Asiarch Philip [22] to let a lion loose upon Poly-carp. But he said that it was not lawful for him, since he had closed the games. Then they thought fit to cry out with one accord that Polycarp should be burned alive. 28. For it was necessary that the vision should be fulfilled which had been shown him concerning his pillow, when he saw it burning while he was praying, and turned and said prophetically to the faithful that were with him, ' I must needs be burned alive.' 29. These things were done with great speed, --more quickly than they were said,--the crowds immediately collecting from the workshops and baths timber and fagots, the Jews being especially zealous in the work, as is their wont. 30. But when the pile was ready, taking off all his upper garments, and loosing his girdle, he attempted also to remove his shoes, although he had never before done this, because of the effort which each of the faithful always made to touch his skin first; for he had been treated with all honor on account of his virtuous life even before his gray hairs came. 31. Forthwith then the materials prepared for the pile were placed about him; and as they were also about to nail him to the stake, [23] he said, ' Leave me thus; for he who hath given me strength to endure the fire, will also grant me strength to remain in the fire unmoved without being secured by you with nails.' So they did not nail him, but bound him. 32. And he, with his hands behind him, and bound like a noble ram taken from a great flock, an acceptable burnt-offering unto God omnipotent, said, 33. ' Father of thy beloved and blessed Son [24] Jesus Christ, through whom we have received the knowledge of thee, the God of angels and of powers and of the whole creation and of the entire race of the righteous who live in thy presence, I bless thee that thou hast deemed me worthy of this day and hour that I might receive a portion in the number of the martyrs, in the cup of Christ, unto resurrection of eternal life, [25] both of soul and of body, in the immortality of the Holy Spirit. 34. Among these may I be received before thee this day, in a rich and acceptable saccrifice, as thou, the faithful and true God, bast beforehand prepared and revealed, and hast fulfilled. 35. Wherefore I praise thee also for everything; I bless thee, I glorify thee, through the eternal high priest, Jesus Christ, thy beloved Son, through whom, with him, in the Holy Spirit, be glory unto thee, both now and for the ages to come, Amen.' 36. When he had offered up his Amen and had finished his prayer, the firemen lighted the fire and as a great flame blazed out, we, to whom it was given to see, saw a wonder, and we were preserved that we might relate what happened to the others. 37. For the fire presented the appearance of a vault, like the sail of a vessel filled by the wind, and made a wall about the body of the martyr, [26] and it was in the midst not like flesh burning, but like gold and silver refined in a furnace. For we perceived such a fragrant odor, as of the fumes of frankincense or of some other precious spices. 38. So at length the lawless men, when they saw that the body could not be consumed by the fire, commanded an executioner [27] to approach and pierce him with the sword. 39. And when he had done this there came forth a quantity of blood [28] so that it extinguished the fire; and the whole crowd marveled that there should be such a difference between the unbelievers and the elect, of whom this man also was one, the most wonderful teacher in our times, apostolic and prophetic, who was bishop of the catholic Church [29] in Smyrna. For every word which came from his mouth was accomplished and will be accomplished. 40. But the jealous and envious Evil One, the adversary of the race of the righteous, when he saw the greatness of his martyrdom, and his blameless life from the beginning, and when he saw him crowned with the crown of immortality and bearing off an incontestable prize, took care that not even his body should be taken away by us, although many desired to do it and to have communion with his holy flesh. 41. Accordingly certain ones secretly suggested to Nicetes, the father of Herod and brother of Alce, [30] that he should plead with the magistrate not to give up his body, 'lest,' it was said, 'they should abandon the crucified One and begin to worship this man.' [31] They said these things at the suggestion and impulse of the Jews, who also watched as we were about to take it from the fire, not knowing that we shall never be able either to forsake Christ, who suffered for the salvation of the whole world of those that are saved, or to worship any other. 42. For we worship him who is the Son of God, but the martyrs, as disciples and imitators of the Lord, we love as they deserve on account of their matchless affection for their own king and teacher. May we also be made partakers and fellow-disciples with them. 43. The centurion, therefore, when he saw the contentiousness exhibited by the Jews, placed him in the midst and burned him, as was their custom. And so we afterwards gathered up his bones. which were more valuable than precious stones and more to be esteemed than gold, and laid them in a suitable place. 44. There the Lord will permit us to come together as we are able, in gladness and joy to celebrate the birthday of his martyrdom, [32] for the commemoration of those who have already fought and for the training and preparation of those who shall hereafter do the same. 45. Such are the events that befell the blessed Polycarp, who suffered martyrdom in Smyrna with the eleven [33] from Philadelphia. This one man is remembered more than the others by all, so that even by the heathen he is talked about in every place."

46. Of such an end was the admirable and apostolic Polycarp deemed worthy, as recorded by the brethren of the church of Smyrna in their epistle which we have mentioned. In the same volume [34] concerning him are subjoined also other martyrdoms which took place in the same city, Smyrna, about the same period of time with Polycarp's martyrdom. Among them also Metrodorus, who appears to have been a proselyte of the Marcionitic sect, suffered death by fire. 47. A celebrated martyr of those times was a certain man named Pionius. Those who desire to know his several confessions, and the boldness of his speech, and his apologies in behalf of the faith before the people and the rulers, and his instructive addresses and moreover, his greetings to those who had yielded to temptation in the persecution, and the words of encouragement which he addressed to the brethren who came to visit him in prison, and the tortures which he endured in addition, and besides these the sufferings and the nailings, and his firmness on the pile, and his death after all the extraordinary trials, [35]--those we refer to that epistle which has been given in the Martyrdoms of the Ancients, [36] collected by us, and which contains a very full account of him. 48. And there are also records extant of others that suffered martyrdom in Pergamus, a city of Asia, -- of Carpus and Papylus, and a woman named Agathonice, who, after many and illustrious testimonies, gloriously ended their lives. [37]

CHAPTER XVI: Justin the Philosopher preaches the Word of Christ in Rome and suffers Martyrdom.

1. About this time [1] Justin, who was mentioned by us just above, [2] after he had addressed a second work in behalf of our doctrines to the rulers already named, [3] was crowned with divine martyrdom, [4] in consequence of a plot laid against him by Crescens, [5] a philosopher who emulated the life and manners of the Cynics, whose name he bore. After Justin had frequently refuted him in public discussions he won by his martyrdom the prize of victory, dying in behalf of the truth which he preached. 2. And he himself, a man most learned in the truth, in his Apology already referred to [6] clearly predicts how this was about to happen to him, although it had not yet occurred. 3. His words are as follows: [7] " I, too, [8] therefore, expect to be plotted against and put in the stocks [9] by some one of those whom I have named, or perhaps by Crescens, that unphilosophical and vainglorious man. For the man is not worthy to be called a philosopher who publicly bears witness against those concerning whom he knows nothing, declaring, for the sake of captivating and pleasing the multitude, that the Christians are atheistical and impious. [10] Doing this he errs greatly. 4. For if he assails us without having read the teachings of Christ, he is thoroughly depraved, and is much worse than the illiterate, who often guard against discussing and bearing false witness about matters which they do not understand. And if he has read them and does not understand the majesty that is in them, or, understanding it, does these things in order that he may not be suspected of being an adherent, he is far more base and totally depraved, being enslaved to vulgar applause and irrational fear. 5. For I would have you know that when I proposed certain questions of the sort and asked him in regard to them, I learned and proved that he indeed knows nothing. And to show that I speak the truth I am ready, if these disputations have not been reported to you, to discuss the questions again in your presence. And this indeed would be an act worthy of an emperor. 6. But if my questions and his answers have been made known to you, it is obvious to you that he knows nothing about our affairs; or if he knows, but does not dare to speak because of those who hear him, he shows himself to be, as I have already said, [11] not a philosopher, but a vainglorious man, who indeed does not even regard that most admirable saying of Socrates." [12] These are the words of Justin.

7. And that he met his death as he had predicted that he would, in consequence of the machinations of Crescens, is stated by Tatian, [13] a than who early in life lectured upon the sciences of the Greeks and won no little fame in them, and who has left a great many monuments of himself in his writings. He records this fact in his work against the Greeks, where he writes as follows: [14] " And that most admirable Justin declared with truth thai the aforesaid persons were like robbers." 8. Then, after making some remarks about the philosophers, he continues as follows: [15] "Crescens, indeed, who made his nest in the great city, surpassed all in his unnatural lust, and was wholly devoted to the love of money. 9. And he who taught that death should be despised, was himself so greatly in fear of it that he endeavored to inflict death, as if it were a great evil, upon Justin, because the latter, when preaching the truth, had proved that the philosophers were gluttons and impostors."And such was the cause of Justin's martyrdom.

CHAPTER XVII: The Martyrs whom Justin intentions in his Own Work.

1. The same man, before his conflict, mentions in his first Apology [1] others that suffered martyrdom before him, and most fittingly records the following events. He writes thus: [2] 2. "A certain woman lived with a dissolute husband; she herself, too, having formerly been of the same character. But when she came to the knowledge of the teachings of Christ, she became temperate, and endeavored to persuade her husband likewise to be temperate, repeating the teachings, and declaring the punishment in eternal fire which shall come upon those who do not live temperately and conformably to right reason. 3. But he, continuing in the same excesses, alienated his wife by his conduct. For she finally, thinking it wrong to live as a wife with a man who, contrary to the law of nature and right, sought every possible means of pleasure, desired to be divorced from him. 4. And when she was earnestly entreated by her friends, who counseled her still to remain with him, on the ground that her husband might some time give hope of amendment, she did violence to herself and remained. 5. But when her husband had gone to Alexandria, and was reported to be conducting himself still worse, she in order that she might not, by continuing in wedlock, and by sharing his board and bed, become a partaker in his lawlessness and impiety--gave him what we a call a bill of divorce and left him. 6. But her noble and excellent husband,--instead of rejoicing, as he ought to have done, that she had given up those actions which she had formerly recklessly committed with the servants and hirelings, when she delighted in drunkenness and in every vice, and that she desired him likewise to give them up, -- when she had gone from him contrary to his wish, brought an accusation concerning her, declaring that she was a Christian. 7. And she petitioned you, the emperor, that she might be permitted first to set her affairs in order, and afterwards, after the settlement of her affairs, to make her defense against the accusation. And this you granted. 8. But he who had once been her husband, being no longer able to prosecute her, directed his attacks against a certain Ptolemaeus, [4] who had been her teacher in the doctrines of Christianity, and whom Urbicius [5] had punished. Against him he proceeded in the following manner:

9. "He persuaded a centurion who was his friend to cast Ptolemaeus into prison, and to take him and ask him this only: whether he were a Christian? And when Ptolemaeus, who was a lover of truth, and not of a deceitful and false disposition, confessed that he was a Christian, the centurion bound him and punished him for a long time in the prison. 10. And finally, when the man was brought before Urbicius he was likewise asked this question only: whether he were a Christian? And again, conscious of the benefits which he enjoyed through the teaching of Christ, he confessed his schooling in divine virtue. 11. For whoever denies that he is a Christian, either denies because he despises Christianity, or he avoids confession because he is conscious that he is unworthy and an alien to it; neither of which is the case with the true Christian. 12. And when Urbicius commanded that he be led away to punishment, a certain Lucius, [6] who was also a Christian, seeing judgment so unjustly passed, said to Urbicius, ' Why have you punished this I man who is not an adulterer, nor a fornicator, nor a murderer, nor a thief, nor a robber, nor has been convicted of committing any crime at all, but has confessed that he beam the name of Christian? You do not judge, O Urbicius, in a manner befitting the Emperor Pins, or the philosophical son [7] of Caesar, or the sacred senate.' 13. And without making any other reply, he said to Lucius, ' Thou also seem-est to me to be such an one.' And when Lucius said, 'Certainly,' he again commanded that he too should be led away to punishment. But he professed his thanks, for he was liberated, he added, from such wicked rulers and was going to the good Father and King, God. And still a third having come forward was condemned to be punished."

14. To this, Justin fittingly and consistently adds the words which we quoted above, [8] saying, "I, too, therefore expect to be plotted against by some one of those whom I have named," &c.[9]

CHAPTER XVIII: The Works of Justin which have come down to us.

1. This writer has left us a great many monuments of a mind educated and practiced in divine things, which are replete with profitable matter of every kind. To them we shall refer the studious, noting as we proceed those that have come to our knowledge. [1] There 2. is a certain discourse [2] of his in defense of our doctrine addressed to Antoninus surnamed t the Pious, and to his sons, and to the Roman senate. Another work contains his second Apology [3] in behalf of our faith, which he offered to him who was the successor of the emperor mentioned and who bore the same name, Antoninus Verus, the one whose times we are now recording. 3. Also another work against the Greeks, [4] in which he discourses at length upon most of the questions at issue between us and the Greek philosophers, and discusses the nature of demons. It is not necessary for me to add any of these things here. 4. And still another work of his against the Greeks has come down to us, to which he gave the title Refutation. And besides these another, On the Sovereignty of God, [5] which he establishes not only from our Scriptures, but also from the books of the Greeks. 5. Still further, a work entitled Psaltes, [6] and another disputation On the Soul, in which, after pro-pounding various questions concerning the problem under discussion, he gives the opinions of the Greek philosophers, promising to refute it, and to present his own view in another work. 6. He composed also a dialogue against the Jews, [7] which he held in the city of Ephesus with Trypho, a most distinguished man among the Hebrews of that day. In it he shows how the divine grace urged him on to the doctrine of the faith, and with what earnestness he had formerly pursued philosophical studies, and how ardent a search he had made for the truth. [8] 7. And he records of the Jews in the same work, that they were plotting against the teaching of Christ, asserting the same things against Trypho: "Not only did you not repent of the wickedness which you had committed, but you selected at that time chosen men, and you sent them out from Jerusalem through all the land, to announce that the godless heresy of the Christians had made its appearance, and to accuse them of those things which all that are ignorant of us say against us, so that you become the causes not only of your own injustice, but also of all other men's." [9] 8. He writes also that even down to his time prophetic gifts shone in the Church. [10] And he mentions the Apocalypse of John, saying distinctly that it was the apostle's. [11] He also refers to certain prophetic declarations, and accuses Trypho on the ground that the Jews had cut them out of the Scripture. [12] A great many other works of his are still in the hands of many of the brethren. [13] 9. And the discourses of the man were thought so worthy of study even by the ancients, that Irenaeus quotes his words: for instance, in the fourth book of his work Against Heresies, where he writes as follows: [14] "And Justin well says in his work against Marcion, that he would not have believed the Lord himself if he had preached another God besides the Creator"; and again in the fifth book of the same work he says: [15] "And Justin well said that before the coming of the Lord Satan never dared to blaspheme God, [16] because he did not yet know his condemnation." 10. These things I have deemed it necessary to say for the sake of stimulating the studious to peruse his works with diligence. So much concerning him.

CHAPTER XIX: The Rulers of the Churches of Rome and Alexandria during the Reign of Ferns.

In the eighth year of the above-mentioned reign [1] Soter [2] succeeded Anicetus [3] as bishop of the church of Rome, after the latter had held office eleven years in all. But when Celadion [4] had presided over the church of Alexandria for fourteen years tie was succeeded by Agrippinus. [5]

CHAPTER XX: The Rulers of the Church of Antioch.

At that time also in the church of Antioch, Theophilus [1] was well known as the sixth from the apostles. For Cornelius, [2] who succeeded Hero, [3] was the fourth, and after him Eros, [4] the fifth in order, had held the office of bishop.

CHAPTER XXI: The Ecclesiastical Writers that flourished in Those Days.

At that time there flourished in the Church Hegesippus, whom we know from what has gone before, [1] and Dionysius, [2] bishop of Corinth, and another bishop, Pinytus of Crete, [3] and besides these, Philip, [4] and Apolinarius, [5] and Melito, [6] and Musanus, [7] and Modestus, [8] and finally, Irenaeus. [9] From them has come down to us in writing, the sound and orthodox faith received from apostolic tradition.[10]

CHAPTER XXII: Hegesippus and the Events which he mentions.

1. Hegesippus in the five books of Memoirs [1] which have come down to us has left a most complete record of his own views. In them he states that on a journey to Rome he met a great many bishops, and that he received the same doctrine from all. It is fitting to hear what he says after making some remarks about the epistle of Clement to the Corinthians. 2. His words are as follows: "And the church of Corinth continued in the true faith until Primus [2] was bishop in Corinth. I conversed with them on my way to Rome, and abode with the Corinthians many days, during which we were mutually refreshed in the true doctrine. 3. And when I had come to Rome I remained a there until Anicetus, [3] whose deacon was Eleutherus. And Anicetus was succeeded by Soter, and he by Eleutherus. In every succession, and in every city that is held which is preached by the law and the prophets and the Lord."

4. The same author also describes the beginnings of the heresies which arose in his time, in the following words: "And after James the Just had suffered martyrdom, as the Lord had also on the same account, Symeon, the son of the Lord's uncle, Clopas, [4] was appointed the next bishop. All proposed him as second bishop because he was a cousin of the Lord. "Therefore, [4a] they called the Church a virgin, for it was not yet corrupted by vain discourses. 5. But Thebuthis, [5] because he was not made bishop, began to corrupt it. He also was sprung from the seven sects [6] among the people, like Simon, [7] from whom came the Simonians, and Cleobius, [8] from whom came the Cleobians, and Dositheus, [9] from whom came the Dositheans, and Gorthaeus, [10] from whom came the Goratheni, and Masbotheus, [11] from whom came the Masbothaeans. From them sprang the Menandrianists, [12] and Marcionists, [13] and Carpocratians, and Valentinians, and Basilidians, and Saturnilians. Each introduced privately and separately his own peculiar opinion. From them came false Christs, false prophets, false apostles, who divided the unity of the Church by corrupt doctrines uttered against God and against his Christ." 6. The same writer also records the ancient heresies which arose among the Jews, in the following words: "There were, moreover, various opinions in the circumcision, among the children of Israel. The following were those that were opposed to the tribe of Judah and the Christ: Essenes, Galileans, Hemerobaptists, Masbothaeans, Samaritans, Sadducees, Pharisees." [14]

7. And he wrote of many other matters, which we have in part already mentioned, introducing the accounts in their appropriate places. And from the Syriac Gospel according to the Hebrews he quotes some passages in the Hebrew tongue, [15] showing that he was a convert from the Hebrews, [16] and he mentions other matters as taken from the unwritten tradition of the Jews. 8. And not only he, but also Irenaeus and the whole company of the ancients, called the Proverbs of Solomon All-virtuous Wisdom. [17] And when speaking of the books called Apocrypha, he records that some of them were composed in his day by certain heretics. But let us now pass on to another.

CHAPTER XXIII: Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth, and the Epistles which he wrote. [1]

1. And first we must speak of Dionysius, who was appointed bishop of the church in Corinth, and communicated freely of his inspired labors not only to his own people, but also to those in foreign lands, and rendered the greatest service to all in the catholic epistles which he wrote to the churches. 2. Among these is the one addressed to the Lacedaemonians, [2] containing instruction in the orthodox faith and an admonition to peace and unity; the one also addressed to the Athenians, exciting them to faith and to the life prescribed by the Gospel, which he accuses them of esteeming lightly, as if they had almost apostatized from the faith since the martyrdom of their ruler Publius, [3] which had taken place during the persecutions of those days. 3. He mentions Quadratus [4] also, stating that he was appointed their bishop after the martyrdom of Publius, and testifying that through his zeal they were brought together again and their faith revived. He records, moreover, that Dionysius the Areopagite, [5] who was converted to the faith by the apostle Paul, according to the statement in the Acts of the Apostles, [6] first obtained the episcopate of the church at Athens. 4. And there is extant another epistle of his addressed to the Nicomedians, [7] in which he attacks the heresy of Marcion, and stands fast by the canon of the truth. 5. Writing also to the church that is in Gortyna, [8] together with the other parishes in Crete, he commends their bishop Philip, [9] because of the many acts of fortitude which are testified to as performed by the church under him, and he warns them to be on their guard against the aberrations of the heretics. 6. And writing to the church that is in Amastris, [10] together with those in Pontus, he refers to Bacchylides [11] and Elpistus, as having urged him to write, and he adds explanations of passages of the divine Scriptures, and mentions their bishop Palmas [12] by name. He gives them much advice also in regard to marriage and chastity, and commands them to receive those who come back again after any fall, whether it be delinquency or heresy. [13] 7. Among these is inserted also another epistle addressed to the Cnosians, [14] in which he exhorts Pinytus, bishop of the parish, not to lay upon the brethren a grievous and compulsory burden in regard to chastity, but to have regard to the weakness of the multitude. 8. Pinytus, replying to this epistle, admires and commends Dionysius, but exhorts him in turn to impart some time more solid food, and to feed the people under him, when he wrote again, with more advanced teaching, that they might not be fed continually on these milky doctrines and imperceptibly grow old under a training calculated for children. In this epistle also Pinytus' orthodoxy in the faith and his care for the welfare of those placed under him, his learning and his comprehension of divine things, are revealed as in a most perfect image.

9. There is extant also another epistle written by Dionysius to the Romans, and addressed to Soter, [15] who was bishop at that time. We cannot do better than to subjoin some passages from this epistle, in which he commends the practice of the Romans which has been retained down to the persecution in our own days. 10. His words are as follows: "For from the beginning it has been your practice to do good to all the brethren in various ways, and to send contributions to many churches in every city. Thus relieving the want of the needy, and making provision for the brethren in the mines by the gifts which you have sent from the beginning, you Romans keep up the hereditary customs of the Romans, which your blessed bishop Soter has not only maintained, but also added to, furnishing an abundance of supplies to the saints, and encouraging the brethren from abroad with blessed words, as a loving father his children.'' 11. In this same epistle he makes mention also of Clement's epistle to the Corinthians, [16] showing that it had been the custom from the beginning to read it in the church. His words are as follows: "To-day we have passed the Lord's holy day, in which we have read your epistle. From it, whenever we read it, we shall always be able to draw advice, as also from the former epistle, which was written 'to us through Clement." 12. The same writer also speaks as follows concerning his own epistles, alleging that they had been mutilated: "As the brethren desired me to write epistles, I wrote. And these epistles the apostles of the devil have filled with tares, cutting out some things and adding others. [17] For them a woe is reserved. [18] It is, therefore, not to be wondered at if some have attempted to adulterate the Lord's writings also, [19] since they have formed designs even against writings which are of less accounts." [20]

There is extant, in addition to these, another epistle of Dionysius, written to Chrysophora [21] a most faithful sister. In it he writes what is suitable, and imparts to her also the proper spiritual food. So much concerning Dionysius.

CHAPTER XXIV: Theaphilus Bishop of Antioch.

1. Of Theophilus, [1] whom we have mentioned as bishop of the church of Antioch, [2] three elementary works addressed to Autolycus are extant; also another writing entitled Against the Heresy of Hermogenes, [3] in which he makes use of testimonies from the Apocalypse of John, and finally certain other catechetical books. [4] 2. And as the heretics, no less then than at other times, were like tares, destroying the pure harvest of apostolic teaching, the pastors of the churches everywhere hastened to restrain them as wild beasts from the fold of Christ, at one time by admonitions and exhortations to the brethren, at another time by contending more openly against them in oral discussions and refutations, and again by correcting their opinions with most accurate proofs in written works. 3. And that Theophilus also, with the others, contended against them, is manifest from a certain discourse of no common merit written by him against Marcion. [5] This work too, with the others of which we have spoken, has been preserved to the present day.

Maximinus, [6] the seventh from the apostles, succeeded him as bishop of the church of Antioch.

CHAPTER XXV: Philip and Modestus.

Philip who, as we learn from the words of Dionysius, [1] was bishop of the parish of Gortyna, likewise wrote a most elaborate work against Marcion, [2] as did also Irenaeus [3] and Modestus. The last named has exposed the error of the man more clearly than the rest to the view of all. There are a number of others also whose works are still presented by a great many of the brethren.

CHAPTER XXVI: Melito and the Circumstances which he records.

1. In those days also Melito, [1] bishop of the parish in Sardis, and Apolinarius, [2] bishop of Hierapolis, enjoyed great distinction. Each of them on his own part addressed apologies in behalf of the faith to the above-mentioned emperor [3] of the Romans who was reigning at that time. 2. The following works of these writers have come to our knowledge. Of Melito, the two books On the Passover, and one On the Conduct of Life and the Prophets, [6] the discourse On the Church, [7] and one On the Lord's Day, [8] still further one On the Faith of Man, [9] and one On his Creation, [10] another also On the Obedience of Faith, and one On the Senses; [11] besides these the work On the Soul and Body, [12] and that On Baptism, [13] and the one On Truth, [14] and On the Creation and Generation of Christ; [15] his discourse also On Prophecy, [16] and that On Hospitality; [17] still further, The Key, [18] and the books On the Devil and the Apocalypse of John, [19] and the work On the Corporeality of God, [20] and finally the book addressed to Antoninus. [21] 3. In the books On the Passover he indicates the time at which he wrote, beginning with these words: "While Servilius Paulus was proconsul of Asia, at the time when Sagaris suffered martyrdom, there arose in Laodicea a great strife concerning the Passover, which fell according to rule in those days; and these were written." [22] 4. And Clement of Alexandria refers to this work in his own discourse On the Passover, [23] which, he says, he wrote on occasion of Melito's work. 5. But in his book addressed to the emperor he records that the following events happened to us under him: "For, what never before happened, [24] the race of the pious is now suffering persecution, being driven about in Asia by new decrees. For the shameless informers and coveters of the property of others, taking occasion from the decrees, openly carry on robbery night and day, despoiling those who are guilty of no wrong." And a little further on he says: "If these things are done by thy command, well and good. For a just ruler will never take unjust measures; and we indeed gladly accept the honor of such a death. 6. But this request alone we present to thee, that thou wouldst thyself first examine the authors of such strife, and justly judge whether they be worthy of death and punishment, or of safety and quiet. But if, on the other hand, this counsel and this new decree, which is not fit to be executed even against barbarian enemies, be not from thee, much more do we beseech thee not to leave us exposed to such lawless plundering by the populace."

7. Again he adds the following: [25] "For our philosophy formerly flourished among the Barbarians; but having sprung up among the nations under thy rule, during the great reign of thy ancestor Augustus, it became to thine empire especially a blessing of auspicious omen. For from that time the power of the Romans has grown in greatness and splendor. To this power thou hast succeeded, as the desired possessor, [26] and such shalt thou continue with thy son, if thou guardest the philosophy which grew up with the empire and which came into existence with Augustus; that philosophy which thy ancestors also honored along with the other religions. 8. And a most convincing proof that our doctrine flourished for the good of an empire happily begun, is this--that there has no evil happened since Augustus' reign, but that, on the contrary, all things have been splendid and glorious, in accordance with the prayers of all. 9. Nero and Domitian, alone, persuaded by certain calumniators, have wished to slander our doctrine, and from them it has come to pass that the falsehood [26a] has been handed down, in consequence of an unreasonable practice which prevails of bringing slanderous accusations against the Christians. [27] 10. But thy pious fathers corrected their ignorance, having frequently rebuked in writing [28] many who dared to attempt new measures against them. Among them thy grandfather Adrian appears to have written to many others, and also to Fundanus, [29] the proconsul and governor of Asia. And thy father, when thou also wast ruling with him, wrote to the cities, forbidding them to take any new measures against us; among the rest to the Larissaeans, to the Thessalonians, to the Athenians, and to all the Greeks. [30] 11. And as for thee,--since thy opinions respecting the Christians [31] are the same as theirs, and indeed much more benevolent and philosophic,--we are the more persuaded that thou wilt do all that we ask of thee." These words are found in the above-mentioned work.

12. But in the Extracts [32] made by him the same writer gives at the beginning of the introduction a catalogue of the acknowledged books of the Old Testament, which it is necessary to quote at this point. 13. He writes as follows: "Melito to his brother Onesimus, [33] greeting: Since thou hast often, in thy zeal for the word, expressed a wish to have extracts made from the Law and the Prophets concerning the Saviour and concerning our entire faith, and hast also desired to have an accurate statement of the ancient book, as regards their number and their order, I have endeavored to perform the task, knowing thy zeal for the faith, and thy desire to gain information in regard to the word, and knowing that thou, in thy yearning after God, esteemest these things above all else, struggling to attain eternal salvation. 14. Accordingly when I went East and came to the place where these things were preached and done, I learned accurately the books of the Old Testament, and send them to thee as written below. Their names are as follows: Of Moses, five books: Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, [34] Deuteronomy; Jesus Nave, Judges, Ruth; of Kings, four books; of Chronicles, two; the Psalms of David, [35] the Proverbs of Solomon, Wisdom also, [36] Ecclesiastes, Song off Songs, Job; of Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah; of the twelve prophets, one book [37]; Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras. [38] From which also I have made the extracts, dividing them into six books." Such are the words of Melito.

CHAPTER XXVII: Apolinarius, Bishop of the Church of Hierapolis.

A number of works of Apolinarius [1] have been preserved by many, and the following have reached us: the Discourse addressed to the above- mentioned emperor, [2] five books Against the Greeks, [3] On Truth, a first and second book, [4] and those which he subsequently wrote against the heresy of the Phrygians, [5] which not long afterwards came out with its innovations, [6] but at that time was, as it were, in its incipiency, since Montanus, with his false prophetesses, was then laying the foundations of his error.

CHAPTER XXVIII: Musanus and his Writings.

And as for Musanus, [1] whom we have mentione among the foregoing writers, a certain very elegant discourse is extant, which was written by him against some brethren that had gone over to the heresy of the so-called Encratites, which had recently sprung up, and which introduced a strange and pernicious error. It is said that Tatian was the author of this false doctrine.

CHAPTER XXIX: The Heresy of Tatian. [1]

1. He is the one whose words we quoted a little above [2] in regard to that admirable man, Justin, and whom we stated to have been a disciple of the martyr. Irenaeus declares this in the first book of his work Against Heresies, where he writes as follows concerning both him and his heresy: [3] 2. "Those who are called Encratites, [4] and who sprung from Saturninus [5] and Marcion, preached celibacy, setting aside the original arrangement of God and tacitly censuring him who made male and female for the propagation of the human race. They introduced also abstinence from the things called by them animate, [6] thus showing ingratitude to the God who made all things. And they deny the salvation of the first man? 3. But this has been only recently discovered by them, a certain Tatian being the first to introduce this blasphemy. He was a hearer of Jus-tin, and expressed no such opinion while he was with him, but after the martyrdom of the latter he left the Church, and becoming exalted with the thought of being a teacher, and puffed up with the idea that he was superior to others, he established a peculiar type of doctrine of his own, inventing certain invisible aeons like the followers of Valentinus, [8] while, like Marcion and Saturninus, he pronounced marriage to be corruption and fornication. His argument against the salvation of Adam, however, he devised for himself." Irenaeus at that time wrote thus. 4. But a little later a certain man named Severus [9] put new strength into the aforesaid heresy, and thus brought it about that those who took their origin from it were called, after him, Severians. 5. They, indeed, use the Law and Prophets and Gospels, but interpret in their own way the utterances of the Sacred Scriptures. And they abuse Paul the apostle and reject his epistles, and do not accept even the Acts of the Apostles. 6. But their original founder, Tatian, formed a certain combination and collection of the Gospels, I know not how, [10] to which he gave the title Diatessaron, [11] and which is still in the l hands of some. But they say that he ventured to paraphrase certain words of the apostle, [12] in order to improve their style. 7. He has left a great many writings. Of these the one most in use among many persons is his celebrated Address to the Greeks, [13] which also appears to be the best and most useful of all his works. In it he deals with the most ancient times, and shows that Moses and the Hebrew prophets were older than all the celebrated men among the Greeks. [14] So much in regard to these men.

CHAPTER XXX: Bardesanes the Syrian and his Extant Works.

1. In the same reign, as heresies were abounding in the region between the rivers, [1] a certain Bardesanes, [2] a most able man and a most skillful disputant in the Syriac tongue, having composed dialogues against Marcion's followers and against certain others who were authors of various opinions, committed them to writing in his own language, together with many other works. His pupils, [3] of whom he had very many (for he was a powerful defender of the faith), translated these productions from the Syriac into Greek. 2. Among them there is also his most able dialogue On Fate, [4] addressed to Antoninus, and other works which they say he wrote on occasion of the persecution which arose at that time. [5]

3. He indeed was at first a follower of Valentinus, [6] but afterward, having rejected his teaching and having refuted most of his fictions, he fancied that he had come over to the more correct opinion. Nevertheless he did not entirely wash off the filth of the old heresy. [7]

About this time also Soter, [8] bishop of the church of Rome, departed this life.



1. SOTER, [1] bishop of the church of Rome, died after an episcopate of eight years, and was succeeded by Eleutherus, [2] the twelfth from the apostles. In the seventeenth year of the Emperor Antoninus Verus, [3] the persecution of our people was rekindled more fiercely in certain districts on account of an insurrection of the masses in the cities; and judging by the number in a single nation, myriads suffered martyrdom throughout the world. A record of this was written for posterity, and in truth it is worthy of perpetual remembrance. 2. A full account, containing the most reliable information on the subject, is given in our Collection of Martyrdoms, [4] which constitutes a narrative instructive as well as historical. I will repeat here such portions of this account as may be needful for the present purpose.

3. Other writers of history record the victories of war and trophies won from enemies, the skill of generals, and the manly bravery of soldiers, defiled with blood and with innumerable slaughters for the sake of children and country and other possessions. 4. But our narrative of the government of God [5] will record in ineffaceable letters the most peaceful wars waged in behalf of the peace of the soul, and will tell of men doing brave deeds for truth rather than country, and for piety rather than dearest friends. It will hand down to imperishable remembrance the discipline and the much- tried fortitude of the athletes of religion, the trophies won from demons, the victories over invisible enemies, and the crowns placed upon all their heads.

CHAPTER I: The Number of those who fought for Religion in Gaul under Verus and the Nature of their Conflicts.

1. The country in which the arena was prepared for them was Gaul, of which Lyons and Vienne [1] are the principal and most celebrated cities. The Rhone passes through both of them, flowing in a broad stream through the entire region. 2. The most celebrated churches in that country sent an account of the witnesses [2] to the churches in Asia and Phrygia, relating in the following manner what was done among them. I will give their own words. [3]

3. "The servants of Christ residing at Vienne and Lyons, in Gaul, to the brethren through out Asia and Phrygia, who hold the same faith and hope of redemption, peace and grace and glory from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord."

4. Then, having related some other matters they begin their account in this manner: "The greatness of the tribulation in this region, and the fury of the heathen against the saints, and the sufferings of the blessed witnesses we cannot recount accurately, nor indeed could they possibly be recorded. 5. For with all his might the adversary fell upon us, giving us a foretaste of his unbridled activity at his future coming. He endeavored in every manner to practice and exercise his servants against the servants of God, not only shutting us out from houses and baths and markets, but forbidding any of us to be seen in any place whatever. 6. But the grace of God led the conflict against him, and delivered the weak, and set them as firm pillars, able through patience to endure all the wrath of the Evil One. And they joined battle with him, undergoing all kinds of shame and injury; and regarding their great sufferings as little, they hastened to Christ, manifesting truly that 'the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed to us-ward.' [4] 7. First of all, they endured nobly the injuries heaped upon them by the populace; clamors and blows and draggings and robberies and stonings and imprisonments, [5] and all things which an infuriated mob delight in inflicting on enemies and adversaries. 8. Then, being taken to the forum by the chiliarch [6] and the authorities of the city, they were examined in the presence of the whole multitude, and having confessed, they were imprisoned until the arrival of the governor. 9. When, afterwards, they were brought before him, and he treated us with the utmost cruelty, Vettius Epagathus, [7] one of the brethren, and a man filled with love for God and his neighbor, interfered. His life was so consistent that, although young, he had attained a reputation equal to that of the eider Zacharias: for he ' walked in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless,' s and was untiring in every good work for his neighbor, zealous for God and fervent in spirit. Such being his character, he could not endure the unreasonable judgment against us, but was filled with indignation, and asked to be permitted to testify in behalf of his brethren, that there is among us nothing ungodly or impious. 10. But those about the judgment seat cried out against him, for he was a man of distinction; and the governor refused to grant his just request, and merely asked if he also were a Christian. And he, confessing this with a loud voice, was himself taken into the order [9] of the witnesses, being called the Advocate of the Christians, but having the Advocate [10] in himself, the Spirit [11] more abundantly than Zacharias. [12] He showed this by the fullness of his love, being well pleased even to lay down his life [13] in defense of the brethren. For he was and is a true disciple of Christ, 'following the Lamb whithersoever he goeth.' [14]

11. "Then the others were divided, [15] and the proto-witnesses were manifestly ready, and finished their confession with all eagerness. But some appeared unprepared and untrained, weak as yet, and unable to endure so great a conflict. About ten of these proved abortions, [16] causing us great grief and sorrow beyond measure, and impairing the zeal of the others who had not yet been seized, but who, though suffering all kinds of affliction, continued constantly with the witnesses and did not forsake [12] them. 12. Then all of us feared greatly on account of uncertainty as to their confession not because we dreaded the sufferings to be endured, but because we looked to the end, and were afraid that some of them might fall away. 13. But those who were worthy were seized day by day, filling up their number, so that all the zealous persons, and those through whom especially our affairs had been established, were collected together out of the two churches. 14. And some of our heathen setrants also were seized, as the governor had commanded that all of us should be examined publicly. These, being ensnared by Satan, and fearing for themselves the tortures which they beheld the saints endure, [17] and being also urged on by the soldiers, accused us falsely of Thyestean banquets and Edipodean intercourse, [18] and of deeds which are not only unlawful for us to speak of or to think, but which we cannot believe were ever done by men. 15. When [15] these accusations were reported, all the people raged like wild beasts against us, so that even if any had before been moderate on account of friendship, they were now exceedingly furious and gnashed their teeth against us. And that which was spoken by our Lord was fulfilled: ' The time will come when whosoever killeth you will think that he doeth God service.' [19] 16. Then finally the holy witnesses endured sufferings beyond description, Satan striving earnestly that some of the slanders might be uttered by them also?

17. "But the whole wrath of the populace, and governor, and soldiers was aroused exceedingly against Sanctus, the deacon from Vienne, [21] and Maturus, a late convert, yet a noble combatant, and against Attalus, a native of Pergamos [22] where he had always been a pillar and foundation, and Blandina, through whom Christ showed that things which appear mean and obscure and despicable to men are with God of great glory, [23] through love toward him manifested in power, and not boasting in appearance. 18. For while we all trembled, and her earthly mistress, who was herself also one of the witnesses, feared that on account of the weakness of her body, she would be unable to make bold confession, Blandina was filled with such power as to be delivered and raised above those who were torturing her by turns from morning till evening in every manner, so that they acknowledged that they were conquered, and could do nothing more to her. And they were astonished at her endurance, as her entire body was mangled and broken; and they testified that one of these forms of torture was sufficient to destroy life, not to speak of so many and so great sufferings. 19. But the blessed woman, like a noble athlete, renewed her strength in her confession; and her comfort and recreation and relief from the pain of her sufferings was in exclaiming, ' I am a Christian, and there is nothing vile done by US.'

20. "But Sanctus also endured marvelously and superhumanly [24] all the outrages which he suffered. While the wicked men hoped, by the continuance and severity of his tortures to wring something from him which he ought not to say, he girded himself against them with such firmness that he would not even tell his name, or the nation or city to which he belonged, or whether he was bond or free, but answered in the Roman tongue to all their questions, ' I am a Christian.' He confessed this instead of name and city and race and everything besides, and the people heard from him no other word. 21. There arose therefore on the part of the governor and his tormentors a great desire to conquer him but having nothing more that they could do to him, they finally fastened red-hot brazen plates to the most tender parts of his body. 22. And these indeed were burned, but he continued unbending and unyielding, firm in his confession, and refreshed and strengthened by the heavenly fountain of the water of life, flowing from the bowels of Christ. 23. And his body was a witness of his sufferings, being one complete wound and bruise, drawn: out of shape, and altogether unlike a human form. Christ, suffering in him, manifested his glory, delivering him from his adversary, and making him an example for the others, showing that nothing is fearful where the love of the Father is, and nothing painful where there is the glory of Christ. 24. For when the wicked men tortured him a second time after some days, supposing that with his body swollen and inflamed to such a degree that he could not bear the touch of a hand, if they should again apply the same instruments, they would overcome him, or at least by his death under his sufferings others would be made afraid, not only did not this occur, but, contrary to all human expectation, his body arose and stood erect in the midst of the subsequent torments, and resumed its original appearance and the use of its limbs so that, through the grace of Christ, these second sufferings became to him, not torture, but healing.

25. "But the devil, thinking that he had already consumed Biblias, who was one of those who had denied Christ, desiring to increase her condemnation through the utterance of blasphemy, [23] brought her again to the torture, to compel her, as already feeble and weak, to report impious things concerning us. 26. But she recovered herself under the suffering, and as if awaking from a deep sleep, and reminded by the present anguish of the eternal punishment in hell, she contradicted the blasphemers. 'How,' she said, 'could those eat children who do not think it lawful to taste the blood even of irrational animals?' And thenceforward she confessed herself a Christian, and was given a place in the order of the witnesses.

27. "But as the tyrannical tortures were made by Christ of none effect through the patience of the blessed, the devil invented other contrivances, -- confinement in the dark and most loathsome parts of the prison, stretching of the feet to the fifth hole in the stocks, [26] and the other outrages which his servants are accustomed to inflict upon the prisoners when furious and filled with the devil. A great many were suffocated in prison, being chosen by the Lord for this manner of death, that he might manifest in them his glory. 28. For some, though they had been tortured so cruelly that it seemed impossible that they could live, even with the most careful nursing, yet, destitute of human attention, remained in the prison, being strengthened by the Lord, and invigorated both in body and soul; and they exhorted and encouraged the rest. But such as were young, and arrested recently, so that their bodies had not become accustomed to torture, were unable to endure the severity of their confinement, and died in prison.

29. "The blessed Pothinus, who had been entrusted with the bishopric of Lyons, was dragged to the judgment seat. He was more than ninety years of age, and very infirm, scarcely indeed able to breathe because of physical weakness; but he was strengthened by spiritual zeal through his earnest desire for martyrdom. Though his body was worn out by old age and disease, his life was preserved that Christ might triumph in it. 30. When he was brought by the soldiers to the tribunal, accompanied by the civil magistrates and a multitude who shouted against him m every manner as if he were Christ himself, he bore noble witness. 31. Being asked by the governor, Who was the God of the Christians, he replied, ' If thou art worthy, thou shalt know.' Then he was dragged away harshly, and received blows of every kind. Those near him struck him with their hands and feet, regardless of his age; and those at a distance hurled, at him whatever they could seize; all of them thinking that they would be guilty of great wickedness and impiety if any possible abuse were omitted. For thus they thought to avenge their own deities. Scarcely able to breathe, he was cast into prison and died after two days.

32. "Then a certain great dispensation of God occurred, and the compassion of Jesus appeared beyond measure, [27] in a manner rarely seen among the brotherhood, but not beyond the power of Christ. 33. For those who had recanted at their first arrest were imprisoned with the others, and endured terrible sufferings, so that their denial was of no profit to them even for the present. But those who confessed what they were imprisoned as Christians, no other accusation being brought against them. But the first were treated afterwards as murderers and defiled, and were punished twice as severely as the others. 34. For the joy of martyrdom, and the hope of the promises, and love for Christ, and the Spirit of the Father supported the latter; but their consciences so greatly distressed the former that they were easily distinguishable from all the rest by their very countenances when they were led forth. 35. For the first went out rejoicing, glory and grace being blended in their faces, so that even their bonds seemed like beautiful ornaments, as those of a bride adorned with variegated golden fringes; and they were perfumed with the sweet savor of Christ, [28] so that some supposed they had been anointed with earthly ointment. But the others were downcast and humble and dejected and filled with every kind of disgrace, and they were reproached by the heathen as ignoble and weak, bearing the accusation of murderers, and having lost the one honorable and glorious and life-giving Name. The rest, beholding this, were strengthened, and when apprehended, they confessed without hesitation, paying no attention to the persuasions of the devil."

36. After certain other words they continue: "After these things, finally, their martyrdoms (were divided into every form. [29] For plaiting a crown of various colors and of all kinds of flowers, they presented it to the Father. It was proper therefore that the noble athletes, having endured a manifold strife, and conquered grandly, should receive the crown, great and incorruptible.

37. "Maturus, therefore, and Sanctus and Blandina and Attalus were led to the amphi- theater to be exposed to the wild beasts, and to give to the heathen public a spectacle of cruelty, a day for fighting with wild beasts being specially appointed on account of our people. 38. Both Maturus and Sanctus passed again through every torment in the amphitheater, as if they had suffered nothing before, or rather, as if, having already conquered their antagonist in many contests, they were now striving for the crown itself. They endured again the customary running of the gauntlet [31] and the violence of the wild beasts, and everything which the furious people called for or desired, and at last, the iron chair in which their bodies being roasted, tormented them with the fumes. 39. And not with this did the persecutors cease, but were yet more mad against them, determined to overcome their patience. But even thus they did not hear a word from Sanctus except the confession which he had uttered from the beginning. 40. These, then, after their life had continued for a long time through the great conflict, were at last sacrificed, having been made throughout that day a spectacle to the world, in place of the usual variety of combats.

41. "But Blandina was suspended on a stake, and exposed to be devoured by the wild beasts who should attack her. And because she appeared as if hanging on a cross, and because of her earnest prayers, she inspired the combatants with great zeal. For they looked on her in her conflict, and beheld with their outward eyes, in the form of their sister, him who was crucified for them, that he might persuade those who believe on him, that every one who suffers for the glory of Christ has fellowship always with the living God. 42. As none of the wild beasts at that time touched her, she was taken down from the stake, and cast again into prison. She was preserved thus for another contest, that, being victorious in more conflicts, she might make the punishment of the crooked serpent irrevocable; [33] and, though small and weak and despised, yet clothed with Christ the mighty and conquering Athlete, she might arouse the zeal of the brethren, and, having overcome the adversary many times might receive, through her conflict, the crown incorruptible.

43. "But Attalus was called for loudly by the people, because he was a person of distinction. He entered the contest readily on account of a good conscience and his genuine practice in Christian discipline, and as he had always been a witness for the truth among us. 44. He was led around the amphitheater, a tablet being carried before him on which was written in the Roman language 'This is Attalus the Christian,' and the people were filled with indignation against him. But when the governor learned that he was a Roman, he commanded him to be taken back with the rest of those who were in prison concerning whom he had written to Caesar, and whose answer he was awaiting.

45. "But the intervening time was not wasted nor fruitless to them; for by their patience the measureless compassion of Christ was manifested. For through their continued life the dead were made alive, and the witnesses showed favor to those who had failed to witness. And the virgin mother had much joy in receiving alive those whom she had brought forth as dead. [34] 46. For through their influence many who had denied were restored, and re- be-gotten, and rekindled with life, and learned to confess. And being made alive and strengthened, they went to the judgment seat to be again interrogated by the governor; God, who desires not the death of the sinner, [35] but mercifully invites to repentance, treating them with kindness. 47. For Caesar commanded that they should be put to death, [36] but that any who might deny should be set free. Therefore, at the beginning of the public festival [37] which took place there, and which was attended by crowds of men from all nations, the governor brought the blessed ones to the judgment seat, to make of them a show and spectacle for the multitude. Wherefore also he examined them again, and beheaded those who appeared to possess Roman citizenship, but he sent the others to the wild beasts.

48. "And Christ was glorified greatly in those who had formerly denied him, for, contrary to the expectation of the heathen, they confessed. For they, were examined by themselves, as about to be set free; but confessing, they were added to the order of the witnesses. But some continued without, who had never possessed a trace of faith, nor any apprehension of the wedding garment, [38] nor an understanding of the fear of God; but, as sons of perdition, they blasphemed the Way through their apostasy. 49. But all the others were added to the Church. While these were being examined, a certain Alexander, a Phrygian by birth, and physician by profession, who had resided in Gaul for many years, and was well known to all on account of his love to God and boldness of speech (for he was not without a share of apostolic grace), standing before the judgment seat, and by signs encouraging them to confess, appeared to those standing by as if in travail. 50. But the people being enraged because those who formerly denied now confessed, cried out against Alexander as if he were the cause of this. Then the governor summoned him and inquired who he was. And when he answered that he was a Christian, being very angry he condemned him to the wild beasts. And on the next day he entered along with Attalus. For to please the people, the governor had ordered Attalus again to the wild beasts. 51. And they were tortured in the amphitheater with all the instruments contrived for that purpose, and having endured a very great conflict, were at last sacrificed. Alexander neither groaned nor murmured in any manner, but communed in his heart with God. 52. But when Attalus was placed in the iron seat, and the fumes arose from his burning body, he said to the people in the Roman language: 'Lo! this which ye do is devouring men; but we do not devour men; nor do any other wicked thing.' And being asked, what name God has, he replied, ' God has not a name as man has.'

53. "After all these, on the last day of the contests, Blandina was again brought in, with Ponticus, a boy about fifteen years old. They had been brought every day to witness the sufferings of the others, and had been pressed to swear by the idols. But because they remained steadfast and despised them, the multitude became furious, so that they had no compassion for the youth of the boy nor respect for the sex of the woman. 54. Therefore they exposed them to all the terrible sufferings and took them through the entire round of torture, repeatedly urging them to swear, but being unable to effect this; for Ponticus, encouraged by his sister so that even the heathen could see that she was confirming and strengthening him, having nobly endured every torture, gave up the ghost. 55. But the blessed Blandina, last of all, having, as a noble mother, encouraged her children and sent them before her victorious to the King, endured herself all their conflicts and hastened after them, glad and rejoicing in her departure as if called to a marriage supper, rather than east to wild beasts. 56. And, after the scourging, after the wild beasts, after the roasting seat, [39] she was finally enclosed in a net, and thrown before a bull. And having been tossed about by the animal, but feeling none of the things which were happening to her, on account of her hope and firm hold upon what had been entrusted to her, and her communion with Christ, she also was sacrificed. And the heathen themselves confessed that never among them had a woman endured so many and such terrible tortures.

57. "But not even thus was their madness and cruelty toward the saints satisfied. For incited by the Wild Beast, wild and barbarous tribes were not easily appeased, and their violence found another peculiar opportunity in the dead bodies [40] 58. For, through their lack of manly reason, the fact that they had been conquered did not put them to shame, but rather the more enkindled their wrath as that of a wild beast, and aroused alike the hatred of governor and people to treat us unjustly; that the Scripture might be fulfilled: ' He that is lawless, let him be lawless still, and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still.' [41] 59. For they cast to the dogs those who had died of suffocation in the prison, carefully guarding them by night and day, lest any one should be buried by us. And they exposed the remains left by the wild beasts and by fire, mangled and charred, and placed the heads of the others by their bodies, and guarded them in like manner from burial by a watch of soldiers for many days. 60. And some raged and gnashed their teeth against them, desiring to execute more severe vengeance upon them; but others laughed and mocked at them, magnifying their own idols, and imputed to them the punishment of the Christians. Even the more reasonable, and those who had seemed to sympathize somewhat, reproached them often, saying, ' Where is their God, and what has their religion, which they have chosen rather than life, profited them?' 61. So various was their conduct toward us; but we were in deep affliction because we could not bury the bodies. For neither did night avail us for this purpose, nor did money persuade, nor entreaty move to compassion; but they kept watch in every way, as if the prevention of the burial would be of some great advantage to them."

In addition, they say after other things: 62. "The bodies of the martyrs, having thus in every manner been exhibited and exposed for six days, were afterward burned and reduced to ashes, and swept into the Rhone by the wicked men, so that no trace of them might appear on the earth. 63. And this they did, as if able to conquer God, and prevent their new birth; 'that,' as they said, 'they may have no hope of a resurrection, [43] through trust in which they bring to us this foreign and new religion, and despise terrible things, and are ready even to go to death with joy. Now let us see if they will rise again, and if their God is able to help them, and to deliver them out of our hands.'"

CHAPTER II: The Martyrs, beloved of God, kindly ministered unto those who fell in the Persecution.

1. Such things happened to the churches of Christ under the above- mentioned emperor, [1] from which we may reasonably conjecture the occurrences in the other provinces. It is proper to add other selections from the same letter, in which the moderation and compassion of these witnesses is recorded in the following words:

2. "They were also so zealous in their imitation of Christ, -- ' who, being in the form of God, counted it not a prize to be on an equality with God,' [2] -- that, though they had attained such honor, and had borne witness, not once or twice, but many times,- having been brought back to prison from the wild beasts, covered 'with burns and scars and wounds, -- yet they did not proclaim themselves witnesses, nor did they suffer us to address them by this name. If any one of us, in letter or conversation, spoke of them as witnesses, they rebuked him sharply. 3. For they conceded cheerfully the appellation of Witness to Christ ' the faithful and true Witness,' [3] and ' firstborn of the dead,' [4] and prince of the life of God; [5] and they reminded us of the witnesses who had already departed, and said, ' They are already witnesses whom Christ has deemed worthy to be taken up in their confession, having sealed their testimony by their departure; but we are lowly and humble confessors.' [6] And they besought the brethren with tears that earnest prayers should be offered that they might be made perfect. [7] 4. They showed in their deeds the power of ' testimony,' manifesting great boldness toward all the brethren, and they made plain their nobility through patience and fearlessness and courage, but they refused the title of Witnesses as distinguishing them from their brethren, [8] being filled with the fear of God."

5. A little further on they say: "They humbled themselves under the mighty hand, by which they are now greatly exalted. [9] They defended all, [10] but accused none. They absolved all, but bound none. [11] And they prayed for those who had inflicted cruelties upon them, even as Stephen, the perfect witness, ' Lord, lay not this sin to their charge.' [12] But if he prayed for those who stoned him, how much more for the brethren !"

6. And again after mentioning other matters, they say: "For, through the genuineness of their love, their greatest contest with him was that the Beast, being choked, might cast out alive those whom he supposed he had swallowed. For they did not boast over the fallen, but helped them in their need with those things in which they themselves abounded, having the compassion of a mother, and shedding many tears on their account before the Father. 7. They asked for life, and he gave it to them, and they shared it with their neighbors. Victorious; over everything, they departed to God. Having always loved peace, and having commended peace to us [13] they went in peace to God, leaving no sorrow to their mother, nor division or strife to the brethren, but joy and peace and concord and love."

8. This record of the affection of those blessed ones toward the brethren that had fallen may be profitably added on account of the inhuman and unmerciful disposition of those who, after these events, acted unsparingly toward the members of Christ. [14]

CHAPTER III: The Vision which appeared in a Dream to the Witness Attalus.

1. The same letter of the above mentioned[1]. witnesses contains another account worthy of remembrance. No one will object to our bringing it to the knowledge of our readers. It runs as follows: 2. "For a certain Alcibiades, [1] who was one of them, led a very austere life, partaking of nothing whatever but bread and water. When he endeavored to continue this same sort of life in prison, it was revealed to Attalus after his first conflict in the amphitheater that Alcibiades was not doing well in refusing the creatures of God and placing a stumbling- block before others. 3. And Alcibiades obeyed; and partook of all things without restraint, giving thanks to God. For they were not deprived of the grace of God, but the Holy Ghost was their counselor." Let this suffice for these matters.

4. The followers of Montanus, [2] Alcibiades [3] and Theodotus [4] in Phrygia were now first giving wide circulation to their assumption in regard to prophecy, -- for the may other miracles that, through the gift of God, were still wrought in the different churches caused their prophesying to be readily credited by many, -- and as dissension arose concerning them, the brethren in Gaul set forth their own prudent and most orthodox judgment in the matter, and published also several epistles from the witnesses that had been put to death among them. These they sent, while they were still in prison, to the brethren throughout Asia and Phrygia, and also to Eleutherus, [5] who was then bishop of Rome, negotiating for the peace of the churches. [6]

CHAPTER IV: Irenaeus commended by the Witnesses in a Letter.

1. The same witnesses also recommended Irenaeus, [1] who was already at that time a presbyter of the parish of Lyons, to the above-mentioned bishop of Rome, saying many favorable things in regard to him, as the following extract shows: 2. "We pray, father Eleutherus, that you may rejoice in God in all things and always. We have requested our brother and comrade Irenaeus to carry this letter to you, and we ask you to hold him in esteem, as zealous for the covenant of Christ. For if we thought that office could confer righteousness upon any one, we should commend him among the first as a presbyter of the church, which is his position."

3. Why should we transcribe the catalogue of the witnesses given in the letter already mentioned, of whom some were beheaded, others cast to the wild beasts, and others fell asleep in prison, or give the number of confessors [2] still surviving at that time? For whoever desires can readily find the full account by consulting the letter itself, which, as I have said, is recorded in our Collection of Martyrdoms. [3] Such were the events which happened under Antoninus. [4]

CHAPTER V: God sent Rain from Heaven for Marcus Aurelius Caesar in Answer to the Prayers of our People.

1. It is reported [1] that Marcus Aurelius 1 Caesar, brother of Antoninus, [2] being about to engage in battle with the Germans and Sarmatians, was in great trouble on account of his army suffering from thirst. [3] But the soldiers of the so-called Melitene legion, [4] through the faith which has given strength from that time to the present, when they were drawn up before the enemy, kneeled on the ground, as is our custom in prayer, [5] and engaged in supplications to God. 2. This was indeed a strange sight to the enemy, but it is reported [6] that a stranger thing immediately followed. The lightning drove the enemy to flight and destruction, but a shower refreshed the army of those who had called on God, all of whom had been on the point of perishing with thirst.

3. This story is related by non-Christian writers who have been pleased to treat the times referred to, and it has also been recorded by our own people. [7] By those historians who were strangers to the faith, the marvel is mentioned, but it is not acknowledged as an answer to our prayers. But by our own people, as friends of the truth, the occurrence is related in a simple and artless manner. 4. Among these is Apolinarius, [8] who says that from that time the legion through whose prayers the wonder took place received from the emperor a title appropriate to the event, being called in the language of the Romans the Thundering Legion. 5. Tertullian is a trustworthy witness of these things. In the Apology for the Faith, which he addressed to the Roman Senate, and which work we have already mentioned, [9] he confirms the history with greater and stronger proofs. 6. He writes [10] that there are still extant letters [11] of the most intelligent Emperor Marcus in which he testifies that his army, being on the point of perishing with thirst in Germany, was saved by the prayers of the Christians. And he says also that this emperor threatened death [12] to those who brought accusation against us.

He adds further: [13] 7. "What kind of laws are those which impious, unjust, and cruel persons use against us alone? which Vespasian, though he had conquered the Jews, did not regard; [14] which Trajan partially annulled, forbidding Christians to be sought after; [15] which neither Adrian, [16] though inquisitive in all matters, nor he who was called Plus [17] sanctioned." But let any one treat these things as he chooses; [18] we must pass on to what followed. 8. Pothinus having died with the other martyrs in Gaul at ninety years of age, [19] Irenaeus succeeded him in the episcopate of the church at Lyons. [20] We have learned that, in his youth, he was a hearer of Polycarp. [21] 9. In the third book of his work Against Heresies he has inserted a list of the bishops of Rome, bringing it down as far as Eleutherus (whose times we are now considering), under whom he composed his work. He writes as follows: [22]

CHAPTER VI: Catalogue of the Bishops of Rome.

1. "The blessed apostles [1] having founded and established the church, entrusted the office of the episcopate to Linus. [2] Paul speaks of this Linus in his Epistles to Timothy. [3] 2. Anencletus [4] succeeded him, and after Anencletus, in the third place from the apostles, Clement [5] received the episcopate. He had seen and conversed with the blessed apostles, [6] and their preaching was still sounding in his ears, and their tradition was still before his eyes. Nor was he alone in this, for many who had been taught by the apostles yet survived. 3. In the times of Clement, a serious dissension having arisen among the brethren in Corinth, [7] the church of Rome sent a most suitable letter to the Corinthians, [8] reconciling them in peace, renewing their faith, and proclaiming [9] the doctrine lately received from the apostles." [10]

A little farther on he says: [11] 4. "Evarestus [12] succeeded Clement, and Alexander, [13] Evarestus. Then Xystus, [14] the sixth from the apostles, was appointed. After him Telesphorus, [15] who suffered martyrdom gloriously; then Hyginus; [16] then Pius; [17] and after him Anicetus; [18] Sorer [19] succeeded Anicetus; and now, in the twelfth place from the apostles, Eleutherus [20] holds the office of bishop. 5. In the same order and succession [21] the tradition in the Church and the preaching of the truth has descended from the apostles unto us."

CHAPTER VII: Even down to those Times Miracles were performed by the Faithful.

1. These things Irenaeus, in agreement with the accounts already given by us, [1] records in the work which comprises five books, and to which he gave the title Refutation and Overthrow of the Knowledge Falsely So-called. [2] In the second book of the same treatise he shows that manifestations of divine and miraculous power continued to his time in some of the churches. He says: [3]

2. "But so far do they come short of raising the dead, as the Lord raised them, and the apostles through prayer. And oftentimes in the brotherhood, when, on account of some necessity, our entire Church has besought with fasting and much supplication, the spirit of the dead has returned, [4] and the man has been restored through the prayers of the saints."

3. And again, after other remarks, he says: [5] "If they will say that even the Lord did these things in mere appearance, we will refer them to the prophetic writings, and show from them that all things were beforehand spoken of him in this manner, and were strictly fulfilled; and that he alone is the Son of God. Wherefore his true disciples, receiving grace from him, perform such works in his Name for the benefit of other men, as each has received the gift from him. 4. For some of them drive out demons effectually and truly, so that those who have been cleansed from evil spirits frequently believe and unite with the Church. Others have a foreknowledge of future events, and visions, and prophetic revelations. Still others heal the sick by the laying on of hands, and restore them to health. And, as we have said, even dead persons have been raised, and remained with us many years. 5. But why should we say more? It is not possible to recount the number of gifts which the Church, throughout all the world, has received from God in the name of Jesus Christ, who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and exercises every day for the benefit of the heathen, never deceiving any nor doing it for money. For as she has received freely from God, freely also does she minister." [6]

6. And in another place the same author writes: [7] "As also we hear that many brethren in the Church possess prophetic gifts, and speak, through the Spirit, with all kinds of tongues, and bring to light the secret things of men for their good, and declare the mysteries of God." So much in regard to the fact that various gifts remained among those who were worthy even until that time.

CHAPTER VIII: The Statements of Irenaeus in regard to the Divine Scriptures.

1. Since, in the beginning of this work, [1] we promised to give, when needful, the words of the ancient presbyters and writers of the Church, in which they have declared those traditions which came down to them concerning the canonical books, and since Irenaeus was one h of them, we will now give his words and, first, what he says of the sacred Gospels: [2]

2. "Matthew published his Gospel among the Hebrews in their own language, [3] while Peter and Paul were preaching and founding the church in Rome. [4] 3. After their departure Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, also transmitted to us in writing those things which Peter had preached; [5] and Luke, the attendant of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel which Paul had declared. [6] 4. Afterwards John, the disciple of the Lord, who also reclined on his bosom, published his Gospel, while staying at Ephesus in Asia." [7]

5. He states these things in the third book of his above- mentioned work. In the fifth book he speaks as follows concerning the Apocalypse of John, and the number of the name of Antichrist: [8]

"As these things are so, and this number is found in all the approved and ancient copies, [9] and those who saw John face to face confirm it, and reason teaches us that the number of the name of the beast, according to the mode of calculation among the Greeks, appears in its letters .... " [10]

6. And farther on he says concerning the same: [11] "We are not bold enough to speak confidently of the name of Antichrist. For if it were necessary that his name should be declared clearly at the present time, it would have been announced by him who saw the revelation. For it was seen, not long ago, but almost in our generation, toward the end of the reign of Domitian." [12]

7. He states these things concerning the Apocalypse [13] in the work referred to. He also mentions the first Epistle of John, [14] taking many proofs from it, and likewise the first Epistle of Peter. [15] And he not only knows, but also receives, The Shepherd, [16] writing as follows: [17]

"Well did the Scripture [18] speak, saying, [19] 'First of all believe that God is one, who has created and completed all things,'" &c.

8. And he uses almost the precise words of the Wisdom of Solomon, saying: [20] "The vision of God produces immortality, but immortality renders us near to God." He mentions also the memoirs [21] of a certain apostolic presbyter, [22] whose name he passes by in silence, and gives his expositions of the sacred Scriptures. 9. And he refers to Justin the Martyr, [23] and to Ignatius, [24] using testimonies also from their writings. Moreover, he promises to refute Marcion from his own writings, in a special work. [25]

10. Concerning the translation of the inspired [26] Scriptures by the Seventy, hear the very words which he writes: [27]

"God in truth became man, and the Lord himself saved us, giving the sign of the virgin but not as some say, who now venture to translate the Scripture, 'Behold, a young woman shall conceive and bring forth a son,' [28] as Theodotion of Ephesus and Aquila of Pontus, [29] both of them Jewish proselytes, interpreted; following whom, the Ebionites say [30] that he was begotten by Joseph."

Shortly after he adds: 11. "For before the Romans had established their empire, while the Macedonians were still holding Asia, Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, [31] being desirous of adorning the library which he had rounded in Alexandria with the meritorious writings of all men, requested the people of Jerusalem to have their Scriptures translated into the Greek language. 12. But, as they were then subject to the Macedonians, they sent to Ptolemy seventy elders, who were the most skilled among them in the Scriptures and in both languages. Thus God accomplished his purpose. [32] 13. But wishing to try them individually, as he feared lest, by taking counsel together, they might conceal the truth of the Scriptures by their interpretation, he separated them from one another, and commanded all of them to write the same translation. [33] He did this for all the books. 14. But when they came together in the presence of Ptolemy, and compared their several translations, God was glorified, and the Scriptures were recognized as truly divine. For all of them had rendered the same things in the same words and with the same names from beginning to end, so that the heathen perceived that the Scriptures had been translated by the inspiration [34] of God. 15. And this was nothing wonderful for God to do, who, in the captivity of the people trader Nebuchadnezzar, when the Scriptures had been destroyed, and the Jews had returned to their own country after seventy years, afterwards, in the time of Artaxerxes, king of the Persians, inspired Ezra the priest, of the tribe of Levi, to relate all the words of the former prophets, and to restore to the people the legislation of Moses." [35]

Such are the words of Irenaeus.

CHAPTER IX: The Bishops under Commodus.

After Antoninus [1] had been emperor for nine- teen years, Commodus received the government. [2] In his first year Julian [3] became bishop of the Alexandrian churches, after Agrippinus [4] had held the office for twelve years.

CHAPTER X: Pantaenus the Philosopher.

1. About that time, Pantaenus, [1] a man highly distinguished for his learning, had charge of the school of the faithful in Alexandria. [2] A school of sacred learning, which continues to our day, was established there in ancient times, [3] and as we have been informed, [4] was managed by men of great ability and zeal for divine things. Among these it is reported [5] that Pantaenus was at that time especially conspicuous, as he had been educated in the philosophical system of those called Stoics. 2. They say that he displayed such zeal for the divine Word, that he was appointed as a herald of the Gospel of Christ to the nations in the East, and was sent as far as India. [6] For indeed [7] there were still many evangelists of the Word who sought earnestly to use their inspired zeal, after the examples of the apostles, for the increase and building up of the Divine Word. 3. Pantaenus was one of these, and is said to have gone to India. It is reported that among persons there who knew of Christ, he found the Gospel according to Matthew, which had anticipated his own arrival. For Bartholomew, [8] one of the apostles, had preached to them, and left with them the writing of Matthew in the Hebrew language, [9] which they had preserved till that time.

4. After many good deeds, Pantaenus finally became the head of the school at Alexandria, [10] and expounded the treasures of divine doctrine both orally and in writing. [11]

CHAPTER XI: Clement of Alexandria.

1. At this time Clement, [1] being trained with him [2] in the divine Scriptures at Alexandria, became well known. He had the same name as the one who anciently was at the head of the Roman church, and who was a disciple of the apostles. [3] 2. In his Hypotyposes [4] he speaks of Pantaenus by name as his teacher. It seems to me that he alludes to the same person also in the first book of his Stromata, when, referring to the more conspicuous of the successors of the apostles whom he had met, [5] he says: [6]

3. "This work [7] is not a writing artfully constructed for display; but my notes are stored up for old age, as a remedy against forgetfulness; an image without art, and a rough sketch of those powerful and animated words which it was my privilege to hear, as well as of blessed and truly remarkable men. 4. Of these the one -- the Ionian [8] -- was in Greece, the other in Magna Graecia; [9] the one of them was from Coele-Syria, [10] the other from Egypt. There were others in the East, one of them an Assyrian, [11] the other a Hebrew in Palestine? But when I met with the last, [13]-- in ability truly he was first,-- having hunted him out in his concealment in Egypt, I found rest. 5. These men, preserving the true tradition of the blessed doctrine, directly from the holy apostles, Peter and James and John and Paul, the son receiving it from the father (but few were like the fathers), have come by God's will even to us to deposit those ancestral and apostolic seeds." [14]

CHAPTER XII: The Bishops in Jerusalem.

1. At this time Narcissus [1] was the bishop of the church at Jerusalem, and he is celebrated by many to this day. He was the fifteenth in succession from the siege of the Jews under Adrian. We have shown that from that time first the church in Jerusalem was composed of Gentiles, after those of the circumcision, and that Marcus was the first Gentile bishop that presided over them. [2] 2. After him the succession in the episcopate was: first Cassianus; after him Publius; then Maximus; [3] following them Julian; then Gaius; [4] after him Symmachus and another Gaius, and again another Julian; after these Capito [5] and Valens and Dolichianus; and after all of them Narcissus, the thirtieth in regular succession from the apostles.

CHAPTER XIII: Rhodo and his Account of the Dissension of Marcion.

1. At this time Rhodo, [1] a native of Asia, who had been instructed, as he himself states, by Tatian, with whom we have already become acquainted, [2] having written several books, published among the rest one against the heresy of Marcion. [3] He says that this heresy was divided in his time into various opinions; [4] and while describing those who occasioned the division, he refutes accurately the falsehoods devised by each of them. But hear what he writes: [5]

2. "Therefore also they disagree among themselves, maintaining an inconsistent opinion. [6] For Apelles, [7] one of the herd, priding himself on his manner of life [8] and his age, acknowledges one principle, [9] but says that the prophecies [10] are from an opposing spirit, being led to this view by the responses of a maiden by name Philumene, [11] who was possessed by a [3] demon. 3. But others, among whom are Potitus and Basilicus, [12] hold to two principles, [13] as does the mariner [14] Marcion himself. 4. These following the wolf [15] of Pontus, and, like him, unable to fathom the division of things, became reckless, and without giving any proof asserted two principles. Others, again, drifting into a worse error, consider that there are not only two, but three natures. [16] Of these, Syneros [17] is the leader and chief, as those who defend his teaching [18] say." 5. The same author writes that he engaged in conversation with Apelles. He speaks as follows:

"For the old man Apelles, when conversing with us, [19] was refuted in many things which he spoke falsely; whence also he said that it was not at all necessary to examine one's doctrine, [20] but that each one should continue to hold what he believed. For he asserted that those who trusted in the Crucified would be saved, if only they were found doing good works. [21] But as we have said before, his opinion concerning God was the most obscure of all. For he spoke of one principle, as also our doctrine does."

6.Then, after stating fully his own opinion, he adds:

"When I said to him, Tell me how you know this or how can you assert that there is one principle, he replied that the prophecies refuted themselves, because they have said nothing true; [22] for they are inconsistent, and false, and self-contradictory. But how there is one principle he said that he did not know, but that he was thus persuaded. 7. As I then adjured him to speak the truth, he swore that he did so when he said that he did not know how there is one unbegotten God, but that he believed it. Thereupon I laughed and reproved him because, though calling himself a teacher, he knew not how to confirm what he taught." [23]

8. In the same work, addressing Callistio, [24] the same writer acknowledges that he had been instructed at Rome by Tatian. [25] And he says that a book of Problems [26] had been prepared by Tatian, in which he promised to explain the obscure and hidden parts of the divine Scriptures. Rhodo himself promises to give in a work of his: own solutions of Tatian's problems. [27] There is also extant a Commentary of his on the Hexaemeron. [28]

9. But this Apelles wrote many things, an impious manner, of the law of Moses, blaspheming the divine words in many of his works, being, as it seemed, very zealous for their refutation and overthrow?

So much concerning these.

CHAPTER XIV: The False Prophets of the Phrygians.

The enemy of God's Church, who is emphatically a hater of good and a lover of evil, and leaves untried no manner of craft against men, was again active in causing strange heresies to spring up against the Church. [1] For some persons, like venomous reptiles, crawled over Asia and Phrygia, boasting that Montanus was the Paraclete, and that the women that followed him, Priscilla and Maximilla, were prophetesses of Montanus. [2]

CHAPTER XV: The Schism of Blastus at Rome. [1]

Others, of whom Florinus [2] was chief, flourished at Rome. He fell from the presbyterate of the Church, and Blastus was involved in a similar fall. They also drew away many oft the Church to their opinion, each striving to introduce his own innovations in respect to the truth.

CHAPTER XVI: The Circumstances related of Montanus and his False Prophets. [1]

1. Against the so-called Phrygian [2] heresy, the power which always contends for the truth raised up a strong and invincible weapon, Apolinarius of Hierapolis, whom we have mentioned before, [3] and with him many other men of ability, by whom abundant material for our history has been left. 2. A certain one of these, in the beginning of his work against them, [4] first intimates that he had contended with them in oral controversies. 3. He commences his work in this manner: [5]

"Having for a very long and sufficient time, O beloved Avircius Marcellus, [6] been urged Against the so-called Phrygian [2] heresy, the power which always contends for the truth raised up a strong and invincible weapon, Apolinarius of Hierapolis, whom we have mentioned before, [3] and with him many other men of ability, by whom abundant material for our history has been left. by you to write a treatise against the heresy of those who are called after Miltiades, [7] I have hesitated till the present time, not through lack of ability to refute the falsehood or bear testimony for the truth, but from fear and apprehension that I might seem to some to be making additions to the doctrines or precepts of the Gospel of the New Testament, which it is impossible for one who has chosen to live according to the Gospel, either to increase or to diminish. 4. But being recently in Ancyra [8] in Galatia, I found the church there [9] greatly agitated by this novelty, not prophecy, as they call it, but rather false prophecy, as will be shown. Therefore, to the best of our ability, with the Lord's help, we disputed in the church many days concerning these and other matters separately brought forward by them, so that the church rejoiced and was strengthened in the truth, and those of the opposite side were for the time confounded, and the adversaries were grieved. 5. The presbyters in the place, our fellow-presbyter Zoticus [10] of Otrous also being present, requested us to leave a record of what had been said against the opposers of the truth. We did not do this, but we promised to write it out as soon as the Lord permitted us, and to send it to them speedily."

6. Having said this with other things, in the beginning of his work, he proceeds to state the cause of the above-mentioned heresy as follows:

"Their opposition and their recent heresy which has separated them from the Church arose on the following account. 7. There is said to be a certain village called Ardabau in that part of Mysia, which borders upon Phrygia. [11] There first, they say, when Gratus was proconsul of Asia, [12] a recent convert, Montanus by name, through his unquenchable desire for leadership, [13] gave the adversary opportunity against him. And he became beside himself, and being suddenly in a sort of frenzy and ecstasy, he raved, and began to babble and utter strange things, prophesying in a manner contrary to the constant custom of the Church handed down by tradition from the beginning. [14] 8. Some of those who heard his spurious utterances at that time were indignant, and they rebuked him as one that was possessed, and that was under the control of a demon, and was led by a deceitful spirit, and was distracting the multitude; and they forbade him to talk, remembering the distinction [15] drawn by the Lord and his warning to guard watchfully against the coming of false prophets? But others imagining themselves possessed of the Holy Spirit and of a prophetic gift,[17] were elated and not a little puffed up; and forgetting the distinction of the Lord, they challenged the mad and insidious and seducing spirit, and were cheated and deceived by him. In consequence of this, he could no longer be held in check, so as to keep silence. 9. Thus by artifice, or rather by such a system of wicked craft, the devil, devising destruction for the disobedient, and being unworthily honored by them, secretly excited and inflamed their understandings which had already become estranged from the true faith. And he stirred up besides two women, [18] and filled them with the false spirit, so that they talked wildly and unreasonably and strangely, like the person already mentioned. [19] And the spirit pronounced them blessed as they rejoiced and gloried in him, and a wise and faithful manner, that he might seem to be a reprover. But those of the Phrygians that were puffed them up by the magnitude of his promises. But sometimes he rebuked them openly in deceived were few in number.

"And the arrogant spirit taught them to revile the entire universal Church under heaven, because the spirit of false prophecy received neither honor from it nor entrance into it. 10. For the faithful in Asia met often in many places throughout Asia to consider this matter, [20] and examined the novel utterances and pronounced them profane, and rejected the heresy, and thus these persons were expelled from the Church and debarred from communion."

11. Having related these things at the outset, and continued the refutation of their delusion through his entire work, in the second book he speaks as follows of their end:

12. "Since, therefore, they called us slayers of the prophets [21] because we did not receive their loquacious prophets, who, they say, are those that the Lord promised to send to the people, [22] let them answer as in God's presence: Who is there, O friends, of these who began to talk, from Montanus and the women down, that was persecuted by the Jews, or slain by lawless men? None. Or has any of them been seized and crucified for the Name? Truly not. Or has one of these women ever been scourged in the synagogues of the Jews, or stoned? No; never anywhere. [23] 13. But by another kind of death Montanus and Maximilla are said to have died. For the report is that, incited by the spirit of frenzy, they both hung themselves; [24] not at the same time, but at the time which common report gives for the death of each. And thus they died, and ended their lives like the traitor Judas. 14. So also, as general report says, that remarkable person, the first steward, [25] as it were, of their so-called prophecy, one Theodotus -- who, as if at sometime taken up and received into heaven, fell into trances, and entrusted himself to the deceitful spirit -- was pitched like a quoit, and died miserably? 15. They say that these things happened in this manner. But as we did not see them, O friend, we do not pretend to know. Perhaps in such a manner, perhaps not, Montanus and Theodotus and the above-mentioned woman died."

16. He says again in the same book that the holy bishops of that time attempted to refute the spirit in Maximilla, but were prevented by others who plainly co-operated with the spirit. He writes as follows:

17. "And let not the spirit, in the same work of Asterius Urbanus, [27] say through Maximilla, ' I am driven away from the sheep like a wolf. [28] I am not a wolf. I am word and spirit and power.' But let him show clearly and prove the power in the spirit. And by the spirit let him compel those to confess him who were then present for the purpose of proving and reasoning with the talkative spirit,- those eminent men and bishops, Zoticus, [29] from the village Comana and Julian, [30] from Apamea, whose mouths the followers of Themiso [31] muzzled, refusing to per-knit the false and seductive spirit to be refuted by them."

18. Again in the same work, after saying other things in refutation of the false prophecies of Maximilla, he indicates the time when he wrote these accounts, and mentions her predictions in which she prophesied wars and anarchy. Their falsehood he censures in the following manner:

19. "And has not this been shown clearly to be false? For it is to-day more than thirteen years since the woman died, and there has been neither a partial nor general war in the world; but rather, through the mercy of God, continued peace even to the Christians." [32] These things are taken from the second book. 20. I will add also short extracts from the third book, in which he speaks thus against! their boasts that many of them had suffered, martyrdom:

"When therefore they are at a loss, being refuted in all that they say, they try to take refuge in their martyrs, alleging that they have many martyrs, and that this is sure evidence of the , power of the so-called prophetic spirit that is with them. But this, as it appears, is entirely fallacious. [33] 21. For some of the heresies have a great many martyrs; but surely we shall not on that account agree with them or confess that they hold the truth. And first, indeed, those called Marcionites, from the heresy of Marcion, say that they have a multitude of martyrs for Christ; yet they do not confess Christ himself in truth. "

A little farther on he continues:

22. "When those called to martyrdom from the Church for the truth of the faith have met with any of the so-called martyrs of the Phrygian heresy, they have separated from them, and died without any fellowship with them, [34] because they did not wish to give their assent to the spirit of Montanus and the women. And that this is true and took place in our own time in Apamea on the Maeander, [35] among those who suffered martyrdom with Gaius and Alexander of Eumenia, is well known."

CHAPTER XVII: Miltiades and his Works.

1. In this work he mentions a writer, Miltiades, [1] stating that he also wrote a certain book against the above-mentioned heresy. After quoting some of their words, he adds:

"Having found these things in a certain work of theirs in opposition to the work of the brother Alcibiades, [2] in which he shows that a prophet ought not to speak in ecstasy, [3] I made an abridgment."

2. A little further on in the same work he gives a list of those who prophesied under the new covenant, among whom he enumerates a certain Ammia [4] and Quadratus, [5] saying:

"But the false prophet falls into an ecstasy, in which he is without shame or fear. Beginning with purposed ignorance, he passes on, as has been stated, 16 involuntary madness of soul. 3. They cannot show that one of the old or one of the new prophets was thus carried away in spirit. Neither can they boast of Agabus, [6] or Judas, [7] or Silas, [8] or the daughters of Philip, [9] or Ammia in Philadelphia, or Quadratus, or any others not belonging to them."

4. And again after a little he says: "For if after Quadratus and Ammia in Philadelphia, as they assert, the women with Montanus received the prophetic gift, let them show who among them received it from Montanus and the women. For the apostle thought it necessary that the prophetic gift should continue in all the Church until the final coming. But they cannot show it, though this is the fourteenth year since the death of Maximilla." [10]

5. He writes thus. But the Miltiades to whom he refers has left other monuments of his own zeal for the Divine Scriptures, [11] in the discourses which he composed against the Greeks and against the Jews, [12] answering each of them separately in two books. [13] And in addition he addresses an apology to the earthly rulers, [14] in behalf of the philosophy which he embraced.

CHAPTER XVIII: The Manner in which Apollonius refuted the Phrygians, and the Persons [1] whom he mentions.

1. As the so-called Phrygian heresy [2] was still flourishing in Phrygia in his time, Apollonius [3] also, an ecclesiastical writer, undertook its refutation, and wrote a special work against it, correcting in detail the false prophecies current among them and reproving the life of the founders of the heresy. But hear his own words respecting Montanus:

2. "His actions and his teaching show who this new teacher is. This is he who taught the dissolution of marriage; [4] who made laws for fasting; [5] who named Pepuza and Tymion, [6] small towns in Phrygia, Jerusalem, wishing to gather people to them from all directions; who appointed collectors of money; [7] who contrived the receiving of gifts under the name of offerings; who provided salaries for those who preached his doctrine, that its teaching might prevail through gluttony." [8]

3. He writes thus concerning Montanus; and a little farther on he writes as follows concerning his prophetesses: "We show that these first prophetesses themselves, as soon as they were filled with the Spirit, abandoned their husbands. How falsely therefore they speak who call Prisca a virgin." [9]

4. Afterwards he says: "Does not all Scripture seem to you to forbid a prophet to receive gifts and money? [10] When therefore I see the prophetess receiving gold and silver and costly garments, how can I avoid reproving her?"

5. And again a little farther on he speaks thus concerning one of their confessors:

"So also Themiso, [11] who was clothed with plausible covetousness, could not endure the sign of confession, but threw aside bonds for an abundance of possessions. Yet, though he should have been humble on this account, he dared to boast as a martyr, and in imitation of the apostle, he wrote a certain catholic [12] epistle, to instruct those whose faith was better than his own, contending for words of empty sound, and blaspheming against the Lord and the apostles and the holy Church."

6. And again concerning others of those honored among them as martyrs, he writes as follows:

"Not to speak of many, let the prophetess herself tell us of Alexander, [13] who called himself a martyr, with whom she is in the habit of banqueting, and who is worshiped [13a] by many. We need not mention his robberies and other daring deeds for which he was punished, but the archives [14] contain them. 7. Which of these forgives the sins of the other? Does the prophet the robberies of the martyr, or the: martyr the covetousness of the prophet? For although the Lord said,' Provide neither gold, nor silver, neither two coats,' [15] these men, in complete opposition, transgress in respect to the possession of the forbidden things. For we will show that those whom they call prophets and martyrs gather their gain not only from rich men, but also from the poor, and orphans, and widows. 8. But if they are confident, let them stand up and discuss these matters, that if convicted they may hereafter cease transgressing. For the fruits of the prophet must be tried; ' for the tree is known by its fruit.' [16] 9. But that those who wish may know concerning Alexander, he was tried by AEmilius Frontinus, [17] proconsul at Ephesus; not on account of the Name, [18] but for the robberies which he had committed, being already an apostate. [19] Afterwards, having falsely declared for the name of the Lord, he was released, having deceived the faithful that were there. [20] And his own parish, from which he came, did not receive him, because he was a robber. [21] Those who wish to learn about him have the public records [22] of Asia. And yet the prophet with whom he spent many years knows nothing about him ![23] 10. Exposing him, through him we expose also the pretense [24] of the prophet. We could show the same thing of many others. But if they are confident, let them endure the test." 11. Again, in another part of his work he speaks as follows of the prophets of whom they boast:

"If they deny that their prophets have received gifts, let them acknowledge this: that if they are convicted of receiving them, they are not' prophets. And we will bring a multitude of proofs of this. But it is necessary that all the fruits of a prophet should be examined. Tell me, does a prophet dye his hair? [25] Does a prophet stain his eyelids? [26] Does a prophet delight in adornment? Does a prophet play with tables and dice? Does a prophet lend on usury? Let them confess whether these things are lawful or not; but I will show that they have been done by them." [27]

12. This same Apollonius states in the same [12] work that, at the time of his writing, it was the fortieth year since Montanus had begun his pretended prophecy. [28] 13. And he says also that Zoticus, who was mentioned by the former writer, [29] when Maximilla was pretending to prophesy in Pepuza, resisted her and endeavored to refute the spirit that was working in her; but was prevented by those who agreed with her. He mentions also a certain Thraseas [30] among the martyrs of that time.

He speaks, moreover, of a tradition that the Saviour commanded his apostles not to depart from Jerusalem for twelve years. [31] He uses testimonies also from the Revelation of John, [32] and he relates that a dead man had, through the Divine power, been raised by John himself in Ephesus. [38] He also adds other things by which he fully and abundantly exposes the error of the heresy of which we have been speaking.These are the matters recorded by Apollonius.

CHAPTER XIX: Serapion on the Heresy of the Phrygians.

1. Serapion, [1] who, as report says, succeeded Maximinus [2] at that time as bishop of the church of Antioch, mentions the works of Apolinarius [3] against the above-mentioned heresy. And he alludes to him in a private letter to Caricus and Pontius, [4] in which he himself exposes the same heresy, and adds the following words: [5]

2. "That you may see that the doings of this lying band of the new prophecy, so called, are an abomination to all the brotherhood throughout the world, I have sent you writings [6] of the most blessed Claudius Apolinarius, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia."

3. In the same letter of Serapion the signatures 3 of several bishops are found, [7] one of whom subscribes himself as follows:

"I, Aurelius Cyrenius, a witness, [8] pray for your health."

And another in this manner:

"AElius Publius Julius, [9] bishop of Debeltum, a colony of Thrace. [1] As God liveth in the heavens, the blessed Sotas in Anchialus desired to cast the demon out of Priscilla, but the hypocrites did not permit him." [10]

4. And the autograph signatures of many other bishops who agreed with them are contained in the same letter.

So much for these persons.

CHAPTER XX: The Writings of Irenaeus against the Schismatics at Rome.

1. Irenaeus [1] wrote several letters against those who were disturbing the sound ordinance of the Church at Rome. One of them was to Blastus On Schism; [2] another to Florinus On Monarchy, [3] or That God is not the Author of Evil. For Florinus seemed to be defending this opinion. And because he was being drawn away by the error of Valentinus, Irenaeus wrote his work On the Ogdoad, [4] in which he shows that he himself had been acquainted with the first successors of the apostles. [5] 2. At the close of the treatise we have found a most beautiful note which we are constrained to insert in this work. [6] It runs as follows:

"I adjure thee who mayest copy this book, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by his glorious advent when he comes to judge the living and the dead, to compare what thou shalt write, and correct it carefully by this manuscript, and also to write this adjuration, and place it in the copy."

3. These things may be profitably read in his work, and related by us, that we may have those ancient and truly holy men as the best example of painstaking carefulness. 4. In the letter to Florinus, of which we have spoken, [7] Irenaeus mentions again his intimacy with Polycarp, saying:

"These doctrines, O Florinus, to speak mildly, are not of sound judgment. These doctrines disagree with the Church, and drive into the greatest impiety those who accept them. These doctrines, not even the heretics outside of the Church, have ever dared to publish. These doctrines, the presbyters who were before us, and who were companions of the apostles, did not deliver to thee.

5. "For when I was a boy, I saw thee in lower Asia with Polycarp, moving in splendor in the royal court, [8] and endeavoring to gain his approbation. 6. I remember the events of that time more clearly than those of recent years. For what boys learn, growing with their mind, becomes joined with it; so that I am able to describe the very place in which the blessed Polycarp sat as he discoursed, and his goings out and his comings in, and the manner of his life, and his physical appearance, and his discourses to the people, and the accounts which he gave of his intercourse with John and with the others who had seen the Lord. And as he remembered their words, and what he heard from them concerning the Lord, and concerning his miracles and his teaching, having received them from eyewitnesses of the 'Word of life,' [9] Polycarp related all things in harmony with the Scriptures. 7. These things being told me by the mercy of God, I listened to them attentively, noting them down, not on paper, but in my heart. And continually, through God's grace, I recall them faithfully. And I am able to bear witness before God that if that blessed and apostolic presbyter had heard any such thing, he would have cried out, and stopped his ears, and as was his custom, would have exclaimed, O good God, unto what times hast thou spared me that I should endure these things? And he would have fled from the place where, sitting or standing, he had heard such words. [10] 8. And this can be shown plainly from the letters [11] which he sent, either to the neighboring churches for their confirmation, or to some of the brethren, admonishing and exhorting them." Thus far Irenaeus.

CHAPTER XXI: How Appolonius suffered Martyrdom at Rome.

1. About the same time, in the reign of Com- modus, our condition became more favorable, and through the grace of God the churches throughout the entire world enjoyed peace, [1] and the word of salvation was leading every soul, from every race of man to the devout worship of the God of the universe. So that now at Rome many who were highly distinguished for wealth and family turned with all their household and relatives unto their salvation. 2. But the demon who hates what is good, being malignant in his nature, could not endure this, but prepared himself again for conflict, contriving many devices against us. And he brought to the judgment seat Apollonius, [2] of the city of Rome, a man renowned among the faithful for learning and philosophy, having stirred up one of his servants, who was well fitted for such a purpose, to accuse him. [3] 3. But this wretched man made the charge unseasonably, because by a royal decreeit was unlawful that informers of such things should live. And his legs were broken immediately, Perennius the judge having pronounced this sentence upon him. [4] 4. But the martyr, highly beloved of God, being ear nestly entreated and requested by the judge to give an account of himself before the Senate, made in the presence of all an eloquent defense of the faith for which he was witnessing. And as if by decree of the Senate he was put to death by decapitation; an ancient law requiring that those who were brought to the judgment seat and refused to recant should not be liberated. [5] 5. Whoever desires to know his arguments before the judge and his answers to the questions of Perennius, and his entire defense before the Senate will find them in the records of the ancient martyrdoms which we have collected. [6]

CHAPTER XXII: The Bishops that were well known at this Time.

In the tenth year of the reign of Commodus, Victor [1] succeeded Eleutherus, [2] the latter having held the episcopate for thirteen years. In the same year, after Julian a had completed his tenth year, Demetrius [4] received the charge of the parishes at Alexandria. At this time the above-mentioned Serapion, [5] the eighth from the apostles, was still well known as bishop of the church at Antioch. Theophilus [6] presided at Caesarea in Palestine; and Narcissus, [7] whom we have mentioned before, still had charge of the church at Jerusalem. Bacchylus [8] at the same time was bishop of Corinth in Greece, and Polycrates [9] of the parish of Ephesus. And besides these a multitude of others, as is likely, were then prominent. But we have given the names of those alone, the soundness of whose faith has come down to us in writing.

CHAPTER XXIII: The Question then agitated concerning the Passover.

1. A Question of no small importance arose at that time. For the parishes of all Asia, as from an older tradition, held that the fourteenth day of the moon, on which day the Jews were commanded to sacrifice the lamb, should be observed as the feast of the Saviour's passover. [1] It was therefore necessary to end their fast on that day, whatever day of the week it should happen to be. But it was not the custom of the churches in the rest of the world to end it at this time, as they observed the practice which, from apostolic tradition, has prevailed to the present time, of terminating the fast on no other day than on that of the resurrection of our Saviour.

2. Synods and assemblies of bishops were held on this account, [2] and all, with one consent, through mutual correspondence drew. up an ecclesiastical decree, that the mystery of the resurrection of the Lord should be celebrated on no other but the Lord's day, and that we should observe the close of the paschal fast on this day only. There is still extant a writing of those who were then assembled in Palestine, over whom Theophilus, [3] bishop of Caesarea, and Narcissus, bishop of Jerusalem, presided. And there is also another writing extant of those who were assembled at Rome to consider the same question, which bears the name of Bishop Victor; [4] also of the bishops in Pontus over whom Palmas, [5] as the oldest, presided; and of the parishes in Gaul of which Irenaeus was bishop, and of those in Osrhoene [6] and the cities there; 3. and a personal letter of Bacchylus, [7] bishop of the church at Corinth, and of a great many others, who uttered the same opinion and judgment, and cast the same vote. And that which has been given above was their unanimous decision. [8]

CHAPTER XXIV: The Disagreement in Asia.

1. But the bishops of Asia, led by Polycrates, decided to hold to the old custom handed down to them. [1] He himself, in a letter which he addressed to Victor and the church of Rome, set forth in the following words the tradition which had come down to him: [2]

2. "We observe the exact day; neither adding, nor taking away. For in Asia also great lights have fallen asleep, which shall rise again on the day of the Lord's coming, when he shall come with glory from heaven, and shall seek out all the saints. Among these are Philip, one of the twelve apostles, who fell asleep in Hierapolis; and his two aged virgin daughters, and another daughter, who lived in the Holy Spirit and now rests at Ephesus; 3. and, moreover, John, who was both a witness and a teacher, who reclined upon the bosom of the Lord, and, being a priest, wore the sacerdotal plate. He fell asleep at Ephesus. 4. And Polycarp [3] in Smyrna, who was a bishop and martyr; and Thraseas, [4] bishop and martyr from Eumenia, who fell asleep in Smyrna. 5. Why need I mention the bishop and martyr Sagaris [5] who fell asleep in Laodicea, or the blessed Papirius, [6] or Melito, [7] the Eunuch who lived altogether in the Holy Spirit, and who lies in Sardis, awaiting the episcopate from heaven, when he shall rise from the dead? 6. All these observed the fourteenth day of the passover according to the Gospel, deviating in no respect, but following the rule of faith. [8] And I also, Polycrates, the least of you all, do according to the tradition of my relatives, some of whom I have closely followed. For seven of my relatives were bishops; and I am the eighth. And my relatives always observed the day when the people [9] put away the leaven. 7. I, therefore, brethren, who have lived sixty-five years in the Lord, and have met with the brethren throughout the world, and have gone through every Holy Scripture, am not affrighted by terrifying words. For those greater than I have said ' We ought to obey God rather than man.' " [10] 8. He then writes of all the bishops who were present with him and thought as he did. His words are as follows:

"I could mention the bishops who were present, whom I summoned at your desire; [11] whose names, should I write them, would constitute a great multitude. And they, beholding my littleness, gave their consent to the letter, knowing that I did not bear my gray hairs in vain, but had always governed my life by the Lord Jesus."

9. Thereupon Victor, who presided over the church at Rome, immediately attempted to cut off from the common unity the parishes of all Asia, with the churches that agreed with them, as heterodox; and he wrote letters and declared all the brethren there wholly excommunicate. [12] 10. But this did not please all the bishops. And they besought him to consider the things of peace, and of neighborly unity and love. Words of theirs are extant, sharply rebuking Victor. 11. Among them was Irenaeus, who, sending letters in the name of the brethren in Gaul over whom he presided, maintained that the mystery of the resurrection of the Lord should be observed only on the Lord's day. He fittingly admonishes Victor that he should not cut off whole churches of God which observed the tradition of an ancient custom and after many other words he proceeds as follows: [13]

12. "For the controversy is not only concerning the day, but also concerning the very manner of the fast. For some think that they should fast one day, others two, yet others more; some, moreover, count their day as consisting 13 of forty hours day and night. [14] 13. And this variety in its observance has not originated in our time; but long before in that of our ancestors. [15] It is likely that they did not hold to strict accuracy, and thus formed a custom for their posterity according to their own simplicity and peculiar mode. Yet all of these lived none the less in peace, and we also live in peace with one another; and the disagreement in regard to the fast confirms the agreement in the faith."

14. He adds to this the following account, which I may properly insert:

"Among these were the presbyters before Soter, who presided over the church which thou now rulest. We mean Anicetus, and Plus, and Hyginus, and Telesphorus, and Xystus. They neither observed it [16] themselves, nor did they permit those after them to do so. And yet though not observing it, they were none the less at peace with those who came to them from the parishes in which it was observed; although this observance was more opposed to those who didnot observe it. [17] 15. But none were ever cast out on account of this form; but the presbyters before thee who did not observe it, sent the eucharist to those of other parishes who observed it. [18] 16. And when the blessed Polycarp was at Rome [19] in the time of Anicetus, and they disagreed a little about certain other things, they immediately made peace with one another, not caring to quarrel over this matter. For neither could Anicetus persuade Polycarp not to observe what he had always observed with John the disciple of our Lord, and the other apostles with whom he had associated; neither could Polycarp persuade Anicetus to observe it as he said that he ought to follow the customs of the presbyters that had preceded him. 17. But though matters were in this shape, they communed together, and Anicetus conceded the administration of the eucharist in the church to Polycarp, manifestly as a mark of respect. [20] And they parted from each other in peace, both those who observed, and those who did not, maintaining the peace of the whole church."

18. Thus Irenaeus, who truly was well named, [21] became a peacemaker in this matter, exhorting and negotiating in this way in behalf of the peace of the churches. And he conferred by letter about this mooted question, not only with Victor, but also with most of the other rulers of the churches. [22]

CHAPTER XXV: How All came to an Agreement respecting the Passover.

Those in Palestine whom we have recently mentioned, Narcissus and Theophilus, [1] and with them Cassius, [2] bishop of the church of Tyre, and Clarus of the church of Ptolemais, and those who met with them, [3] having stated many things respecting the tradition concerning the passover which had come to them in succession from the apostles, at the close of their writing add these words: [4]

"Endeavor to send copies of our letter to every church, that we may not furnish occasion to those who easily deceive their souls. We show you indeed that also in Alexandria they keep it on the same day that we do. For letters are carried from us to them and from them to us, so that in the same manner and at the same time we keep the sacred day." [5]

CHAPTER XXVI: The Elegant Works of Irenaeus which have come down to us.

Besides the works and letters of Irenaeus which we have mentioned, [1] a certain book of his On Knowledge, written against the Greeks, [2] very concise and remarkably forcible, is extant; and another, which he dedicated to a brother Martian, In Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching; [3] and a volume containing various Dissertations, [4] in which he mentions the Epistle to the Hebrews and the so-called Wisdom of Solomon, making quotations from them. These are the works of Irenaeus which have come to our knowledge.

Commodus having ended his reign after thirteen years, Severus became emperor in less than six months after his death, Pertinax having reigned during the intervening time. [5]

CHAPTER XXVII: The Works of Others that flourished at that Time.

Numerous memorials of the faithful zeal of the ancient ecclesiastical men of that time are still preserved by many. Of these we would note particularly the writings of Heraclitus [1] On the Apostle, and those of Maximus on the question so much discussed among heretics, the Origin of Evil, and on the Creation of Matter. [2] Also those of Candidus on the Hexaemeron, [3] and of Apion [4] on the same subject; likewise of Sextus [5] on the Resurrection, and another treatise of Arabianus, [6] and writings of a multitude of others, in regard to whom, because we have no data, it is impossible to state in our work when they lived, or to give any account of their history. [7] And works of many others have come down to us whose names we are unable to give, orthodox and ecclesiastical, as their interpretations of the Divine Scriptures show, but unknown to us, because their names are not stated in their writings. [8]

CHAPTER XXVIII: Those who first advanced the Heresy of Artemon; their Manner of Life, and how they dared to corrupt the Sacred Scriptures.

1. In a laborious work by one of these writers against the heresy of Artemon, [1]which Paul of Samosata [2] attempted to revive again in our day, there is an account appropriate to the history which we are now examining. 2. For he criticises, as a late innovation, the above-mentioned heresy which teaches that the Saviour was a mere man, because they were attempting to magnify it as ancient? Having given in his work many other arguments in refutation of their blasphemous falsehood, he adds the following words:

3. "For they say that all the early teachers and the apostles received and taught what they now declare, and that the truth of the Gospel was preserved until the times of Victor, who was the thirteenth bishop of Rome from Peter, [4] but that from his successor, Zephyrinus, [5] the truth had been corrupted. 4. And what they say might be plausible, if first of all the Divine Scriptures did not contradict them. And there are writings of certain brethren older than the times of Victor, which they wrote in behalf of the truth against the heathen, and against the heresies which existed in their day. I refer to Justin [6] and Miltiades [7] and Tatian [8] and Clement [9] and many others, in all of whose works Christ is spoken of as God. [10] 5. For who does not know the works of Irenaeus [11] and of Melito [12] and of others which teach that Christ is God and man? [13] And how many psalms and hymns, [14] written by the faithful brethren from the beginning, celebrate Christ the Word of God, speaking of him as Divine. 6. How then since the opinion held by the Church has been preached for so many years, can its preaching have been delayed as they affirm, until the times of Victor? And how is it that they are not ashamed to speak thus falsely of Victor, knowing well that he cut off from communion Theodotus, the cobbler, [15] the leader and father of this God- denying apostasy, and the first to declare that Christ is mere man? For if Victor agreed with their opinions, as their slander affirms, how came he to cast out Theodotus, the inventor of this heresy ?"

7. So much in regard to Victor. His bishopric lasted ten years, and Zephyrinus was appointed his successor about the ninth year of the reign of Severus. [16] The author of the above-mentioned book, concerning the founder of this heresy, narrates another event which occurred in the time of Zephyrinus, using these words:

8. "I will remind many of the brethren of a fact which took place in our time, which, had it happened in Sodom, might, I think, have proved a warning to them. There was a certain confessor, Natalius, [17] not long ago, but in our own day. 9. This man was deceived at one time by Asclepiodotus [18] and another Theodotus, [19] a money- changer. Both of them were disciples of Theodotus, the cobbler, who, as I have said, was the first person excommunicated by Victor, bishop at that time, on account of this sentiment, or rather senselessness. [20] 10. Natalius was persuaded by them to allow himself to be chosen bishop of this heresy with a salary, to be paid by them, of one hundred and fifty denarii a month. [21] 11. When he had thus connected himself with them, he was warned oftentimes by the Lord through visions. For the compassionate God and our Lord Jesus Christ was not willing that a witness of his own sufferings, being cast out of the Church, should perish. 12. But as he paid little regard to the visions, because he was ensnared by the first position among them and by that shameful covetousness which destroys a great many, he was scourged by holy angels, and punished severely through the entire night. [22] Thereupon having risen in the morning, he put on sackcloth and covered himself with ashes, and with great haste and tears he fell down before Zephyrinus, the bishop, rolling at the feet not only of the clergy, but also of the laity; and he moved with his tears the compassionate Church of the merciful Christ. And though he used much supplication, and showed the welts of the stripes which he had received, yet scarcely was he taken back into communion."

13. We will add from the same writer some other extracts concerning them, which run as follows: [23]

"They have treated the Divine Scriptures recklessly and without fear. They have set aside the rule of ancient faith; and Christ they have not known. They do not endeavor to learn what the Divine Scriptures declare, but strive laboriously after any form of syllogism which may be devised to sustain their impiety. And if any one brings before them a passage of Divine Scripture, they see whether a conjunctive or disjunctive form of syllogism can be made from it. 14. And as being of the earth and speaking of the earth, and as ignorant of him who cometh from above, they forsake the holy writings of God to devote themselves to geometry. [24] Euclid is laboriously measured [25] by some of them; and Aristotle and Theophrastus are admired; and Galen, perhaps, by some is even worshiped. 15. But that those who use the arts of unbelievers for their heretical opinions and adulterate the simple faith of the Divine Scriptures by the craft of the godless, are far from the faith, what need is there to say? Therefore they have laid their hands boldly upon the Divine Scriptures, alleging that they have corrected them. 16. That I am not speaking falsely of them in this matter, whoever wishes may learn. For if any one will collect their respective copies, and compare them one with another, he will find that they differ greatly. 17. Those of Asclepiades, [26] for example, do not agree with those of Theodotus. And many of these can be obtained, because their disciples have assiduously written the corrections, as they call them, that is the corruptions, [27] of each of them. Again, those of Hermophilus 28 do not agree with these, and those of Apollonides [29] are not consistent with themselves. For you can compare those prepared by them at an earlier date with those which they corrupted later, and you will find them widely different. 18. But how daring this offense is, it is not likely that they themselves are ignorant. For either they do not believe that the Divine Scriptures were spoken by the Holy Spirit, and thus are unbelievers, or else they think themselves wiser than the Holy Spirit, and in that case what else are they than demoniacs? For they cannot deny the commission of the crime, since the copies have been written by their own hands. For they did not receive such Scriptures from their instructors, nor can they produce any copies from which they were transcribed. 19. But some of them have not thought it worth while to corrupt them, but simply deny the law and the prophets, [30] and thus through their lawless and impious teaching under pretense of grace, have sunk to the lowest depths of perdition."

Let this suffice for these things.


CHAPTER I: The Persecution under Severus.

When Severus began to persecute the churches,[1] glorious testimonies were given everywhere by the athletes of religion. This was especially the case in Alexandria, to which city, as to a most prominent theater, athletes of God were brought from Egypt and all Thebais according to their merit, and won crowns from God through their great patience under many tortures and every mode of death. Among these was Leonides, who was called the father of Origen,[2] and who was beheaded while his son was still young. How remarkable the predilection of this son was for the Divine Word, in consequence of his father's instruction, it will not be amiss to state briefly, as his fame has been very greatly celebrated by many.

CHAPTER II: The Training of Origen from Childhood.[1]

1. Many things might be said in attempting to describe the life of the man while in school; but this subject alone would require a separate treatise. Nevertheless, for the present, abridging most things, we shall state a few facts concerning him as briefly as possible, gathering them from certain letters, and from the statement of persons still living who were acquainted with him. 2. What they report of Origen seems to me worthy of mention, even, so to speak, from his swathing-bands.

It was the tenth year of the reign of Severus, while Laetus[2] was governor of Alexandria and the rest of Egypt, and Demetrius[3] had lately received the episcopate of the parishes there, as successor of Julian.[4] 3. As the flame of persecution had been kindled greatly,[5] and multitudes had gained the crown of martyrdom, such desire for martyrdom seized the soul of Origen, although yet a boy, that he went close to danger, springing forward and rushing to the conflict in his eagerness. 4. And truly the termination of his life had been very near had not the divine and heavenly Providence, for the benefit of many, prevented his desire through the agency of his mother. 5. For, at first, entreating him, she begged him to have compassion on her motherly feelings toward him; but finding, that when he had learned that his father had been seized and imprisoned, he was set the more resolutely, and completely carried away with his zeal for martyrdom, she hid all his clothing, and thus compelled him to remain at home. 6. But, as there was nothing else that he could do, and his zeal beyond his age would not suffer him to be quiet, he sent to his father an encouraging letter on martyrdom,[6] in which he exhorted him, saying, "Take heed not to change your mind on our account."

This may be recorded as the first evidence of Origen's youthful wisdom and of his genuine love for piety. 7. For even then he had stored up no small resources in the words of the faith, having been trained in the Divine Scriptures from childhood. And he had not studied them with indifference, for his father, besides giving him the usual liberal education,[7] had made them a matter of no secondary importance. 8. First of all, before inducting him into the Greek sciences, he drilled him in sacred studies, requiring him to learn and recite every day. 9. Nor was this irksome to the boy, but he was eager and diligent in these studies. And he was not satisfied with learning what was simple and obvious in the sacred words, but sought for something more, and even at that age busied himself with deeper speculations. So that he puzzled his father with inquiries for the true meaning of the inspired Scriptures. 10. And his father rebuked him seemingly to his face, telling him not to search beyond his age, or further than the manifest meaning. But by himself he rejoiced greatly and thanked God, the author of all good, that he had deemed him worthy to be the father of such a child. 11. And they say that often, standing by the boy when asleep, he uncovered his breast as if the Divine Spirit were enshrined within it, and kisses it reverently; considering himself blessed in his goodly offspring.

These and other things like them are related to Origen when a boy. 12. But when his father ended his life in martyrdom, he was left with his mother and six younger brothers when he was not quite seventeen years old.[8] 13. And the poverty of his father being confiscated to the royal treasury, he and his family were in want of the necessaries of life. But he was deemed worthy of Divine care. And he found welcome and rest with a woman of great wealth, and distinguished in her manner of life and in other respects. She was treating with great honor a famous heretic then in Alexandria;[9] who, however, was born in Antioch. He was with her as an adopted son, and she treated him with the greatest kindness. 14. But although Origen was under the necessity of associating with him, he nevertheless gave from this time on strong evidences of his orthodoxy in the faith. For when on account of the apparent skill in argument[10] of Paul, -- for this was the man's name, -- a great multitude came to him, not only of heretics but also of our people, Origen could never be induced to join with him in prayer;[11] for he held, although a boy, the rule of the Church,[12] and abominated, as he somewhere expresses it, heretical teachings.[13] Having been instructed in the sciences of the Greeks by his father, he devoted him after his death more assiduously and exclusively to the study of literature, so that he obtained considerable preparation in philology[14] ad was able not long after the death of his father, by devoting himself to that subject, to earn a compensation amply sufficient for his needs at his age.[15]

CHAPTER III: While still very Young, he taught diligently the Word of Christ.

1. But while he was lecturing in the school, as he tells us himself, and there was no one at Alexandria to give instruction in the faith, as all were driven away by the threat of persecution, some of the heathen came to him to hear the word of God. 2. The first of them, he says, was Plutarch,[1] who after living well, was honored with divine martyrdom. The second was Heracles,[2] a brother of Plutarch; who after he too had given with him abundant evidence of a philosophic ad ascetic life, was esteemed worthy to succeed Demetrius in the bishopric of Alexandria.

3. He was in his eighteenth year when he took charge of the catechetical school.[3] He was prominent also at this time, during the persecution under Aquila,[4] the governor of Alexandria, when his name became celebrated among the leaders in the faith, through the kindness and goodwill which he manifested toward all the holy martyrs, whether known to him or strangers. 4. For not only was he with them while in bonds, and until their final condemnation, but when the holy martyrs were led to death, he was very bold and went with them into danger. So that as he acted bravely, and with great boldness saluted the martyrs with a kiss, oftentimes the heathen multitude round about them became infuriated, and were on the point of rushing upon him. 5. But through the helping hand of God, he escaped absolutely and marvelously. And this same divine and heavenly power, again and again, it is impossible to say how often, on account of his great zeal and boldness for the words of Christ, guarded him when thus endangered.[5] So great was the enmity of the unbelievers toward him, on account of the multitude that were instructed by him in the sacred faith, that they placed bands of soldiers around the house where he abode. 6. Thus day by day the persecution burned against him, so that the whole city could no longer contain him; but he removed from house to house and was driven in every direction because of the multitude who attended upon the divine instruction which he gave. For his life also exhibited right and admirable conduct according to the practice of genuine philosophy. 7. For they say that his manner of life was as his doctrine, and his doctrine as his life.[6] Therefore, by the divine Power working with him he aroused a great many to his own zeal.

8. But when he saw yet more coming to him for instruction, and the catechetical school had been entrusted to him alone by Demetrius, who presided over the church, he considered the teaching of grammatical science inconsistent with training in divine subjects,[7] and forthwith he gave up his grammatical school as unprofitable and a hindrance to sacred learning. 9. Then, with becoming consideration, that he might not need aid from others, he disposed of whatever valuable books of ancient literature he possessed, being satisfied with receiving from the purchaser four aboli a day.[8] For many years he lived philosophically[9] in this manner, putting away all the incentives of youthful desires. Through the entire day he endured no small amount of discipline; and for the greater part of the night he gave himself to the study of the Divine Scriptures. He restrained himself as much as possible by a most philosophic life; sometimes by the discipline of fasting, again by limited time for sleep. And in his zeal he never lay upon a bed, but upon the ground. 10. Most of all, he thought that the words of the Saviour in the Gospel should be observed, in which he exhorts not to have two coats nor to use shoes,[10] nor to occupy oneself with cares for the future.[11] 11. With a zeal beyond his age he continued in col and nakedness; and, going to the very extreme of poverty, he greatly astonished those about him. And indeed he grieved may of his friends who desired to share their possessions with him, on account of the wearisome toil which they saw him enduring in the teaching of divine things. 12. But he did not relax his perseverance. He is said to have walked for a number of years never wearing a shoe, and, for a great many years, to have abstained from the use of wine, and of all other things beyond his necessary food; so that he was in danger of breaking down and destroying his constitution.[12]

13. By giving such evidences of a philosophic life to those who saw him, he aroused may of his pupils to similar zeal; so that prominent men even of the unbelieving heathen and men that followed learning and philosophy were led to his instruction. Some of them having received from hi into the depth of their souls faith in the Divine Word, became prominent in the persecution then prevailing; and some of them were seized and suffered martyrdom.

CHAPTER IV: The Pupils of Origen that became Martyrs.

1. The first of these was Plutarch, who was mentioned just above.[1] As he was led to death the man of whom we are speaking being with him at the end of his life, came near being slain by his fellow-citizens, as if he were the cause of his death. But the providence of God preserved him at this time also. 2. After Plutarch, the second martyr among the pupils of Origen was Serenus,[2] who gave through fire a proof of the faith which he had received. 3. The third martyr from the same school was Heraclides,[3] and after him the fourth was Hero.[4] The former of these was as yet a catechumen, and the latter had but recently been baptized. Both of them were beheaded. After them, the fifth from the same school proclaimed as an athlete of piety was another Serenus, who, it is reported, was beheaded, after a long endurance of tortures. And of women, Herais[5] died while yet a catechumen, receiving baptism by fire, as Origen himself somewhere says.

CHAPTER V: Potamiaena.[1]

1. Basilides[2] may be counted the seventh of these. He led to martyrdom the celebrated Potamiaena, who is still famous among the people of the country for the many things which she endured for the preservation of her chastity and virginity. For she was blooming in the perfection of her mind and her physical graces. Having suffered much for the faith of Christ, finally after tortures dreadful and terrible to speak of, she with her mother, Marcella,[3] was put to death by fire. 2. They say that the judge, Aquila by name, having inflicted severe tortures upon her entire body, at last threatened to hand her over to the gladiators for bodily abuse. After a little consideration, being asked for her decision, she made a reply which was regarded as impious. 3. Thereupon she received sentence immediately, and Basilides, one of the officers of the army, led her to death. But as the people attempted to annoy and insult her with abusive words, he drove back her insulters, showing her much pity and kindness. And perceiving the man's sympathy for her, she exhorted him to be of good courage, for she would supplicate her Lord for him after her departure, and he would soon received a reward for the kindness he had shown her. 4. Having said this, she nobly sustained the issue, burning pitch being poured little by little, over various parts of her body, from the sole of her feet to the crown of her head. Such was the conflict endured by this famous maiden.

5. Not long after this Basilides, being asked by his fellow-soldiers to swear for a certain reason, declared that it was not lawful for him to swear at all, for he was a Christian, and he confessed this openly. At first they thought that he was jesting, but when he continued to affirm it, he was led to the judge, and, acknowledging his conviction before him, he was imprisoned. 6. But the brethren in God coming to him and inquiring the reason of this sudden and remarkable resolution, he is reported to have said that Potamiaena, for three days after her martyrdom, stood beside him by night and placed a crown on his head and said that she had besought the Lord for him and had obtained what she asked, and that soon she would take him with her. Thereupon the brethren gave him the seal[4] of the Lord; and on the next day, after giving glorious testimony for the Lord, he was beheaded. 7. And many others in Alexandria are recorded to have accepted speedily the word of Christ in those times. For Potamiaena appeared to them in their dreams and exhorted them. But let this suffice in regard to this matter.

CHAPTER VI: Clement of Alexandria.

Clement[1] having succeeded Pantaenus,[2] had charge at that time of the catechetical instruction in Alexandria, so that Origen also, while still a boy,[3] was one of his pupils. In the first book of the work called Stromata, which Clement wrote, he gives a chronological table,[4] bringing events down to the death of Commodus. So it is evident that that work was written during the reign of Severus, whose times we are now recording.

CHAPTER VII: The Writer, Judas.[1]

At this time another writer, Judas, discoursing about the seventy weeks in Daniel, brings down the chronology to the tenth year of the reign of Severus. He thought that the coming of Antichrist, which was much talked about, was then near.[2] So greatly did the agitation caused by the persecution of our people at this time disturb the minds of many.

CHAPTER VIII: Origen's Daring Deed.

1. At this time while Origen was conducting catechetical instruction at Alexandria, a deed was done by him which evidenced an immature and youthful mind, but at the same time gave the highest proof of faith and continence.[1] 2. For he took the words, "There are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake,"[2] in too literal ad extreme a sense. And in order to fulfill the Saviour's word, and at the same time to take away from the unbelievers all opportunity for scandal,-- for, although young, he met for the study of divine things with women as well as men,- -he carried out in action the word of the Saviour. He thought that this would not be known by many of his acquaintances. But it was impossible for him, though desiring to do so, to keep such an action secret.

3. When Demetrius, who presided over that parish, at last learned of this, he admired greatly the daring nature of the act, and as he perceived his zeal and the genuineness of his faith, he immediately exhorted him to courage, and urged him the more to continue his work of catechetical instruction. 4. Such was he at that time. But soon afterward, seeing that he was prospering, and becoming great and distinguished among all men, the same Demetrius, overcome by human weakness, wrote of his deed as most foolish to the bishops throughout the world. But the bishops of Cesarea and Jerusalem, who were especially notable and distinguished among the bishops of Palestine, considering Origen worthy in the highest degree of the honor, ordained him a presbyter. [3] 5. Thereupon his fame increased greatly, and his name became renowned everywhere, and he obtained no small reputation for virtue and wisdom. But Demetrius, having nothing else that he could say against him, save this deed of his boyhood, accused him bitterly, [4] and dared to include with him in these accusations those who had raised him to the presbyterate. 6. These things, however, took place a little later. But at this time Origen continued fearlessly the instruction in divine things at Alexandria by day and night to all who came to him; devoting his entire leisure without cessation to divine studies and to his pupils.

7. Severus, having held the government for eighteen years, was succeeded by his son, Antoninus. [5] Among those who had endured courageously the persecution of that time, and had been preserved by the Providence of God through the conflicts of confession, was Alexander, of whom we have spoken already [6] as bishop of the church in Jerusalem. On account of his pre- eminence in the confession of Christ he was thought worthy of that bishopric, while Narcissus, [7] his predecessor, was still living.

CHAPTER IX: The Miracles of Narcissus.

1. The citizens of that parish mention many other miracles of Narcissus, on the tradition of the brethren who succeeded him; among which they relate the following wonder as performed by him. 2. They say that the oil once failed while the deacons were watching through the night at the great paschal vigil. Thereupon the whole multitude being dismayed, Narcissus directed those who attended to the lights, to draw water and bring it to him. 3. This being immediately done he prayed over the water, and with firm faith in the Lord, commanded them to pour it into the lamps. And when they had done so, contrary to all expectation by a wonderful and divine power, the nature of the water was changed into that of oil. A small portion of it has been preserved even to our day by many of the brethren there as a memento of the wonder. [1]

4. They tell many other things worthy to be noted of the life of this man, among which is this. Certain base men being unable to endure the strength and firmness of his life, and fearing punishment for the many evil deeds of which they were conscious, sought by plotting to anticipate him, and circulated a terrible slander against him. 5. And to persuade those who heard of it, they confirmed their accusations with oaths: one invoked upon himself destruction by fire; another the wasting of his body by a foul disease; the third the loss of his eyes. But though they swore in this manner, they could not affect the mind of the believers; because the continence and virtuous life of Narcissus were well known to all. 6. But he could not in any wise endure the wickedness of these men; and as he had followed a philosophic [2] life for a long time, he fled from the whole body of the Church, and hid himself in desert and secret places, and remained there many years. [3] 7. But the great eye of judgment was not unmoved by these things, but soon looked down upon these impious men, and brought on them the curses with which they had bound themselves. The residence of the first, from nothing but a little spark failing upon it, was entirely consumed by night, and he perished with all his family. The second was speedily covered with the disease which he had imprecated upon himself, from the sole of his feet to his head. 8. But the third, perceiving what had happened to the others, and fearing the inevitable judgment of God, the ruler of all, confessed publicly what they had plotted together. And in his repentance he became so wasted by his great lamentations, and continued weeping to such an extent, that both his eyes were destroyed. Such were the punishments which these men received for their falsehood.

CHAPTER X: The Bishops of Jerusalem.

Narcissus having departed, and no one knowing where he was, those presiding over the neighboring churches thought it best to ordain another bishop. His name was Dius. [1] He presided but a short time, and Germanio succeeded him. He was followed by Gordius, [2] in whose time Narcissus appeared again, as if raised from the dead. [3] And immediately the brethren besought him to take the episcopate, as all admired him the more on account of his retirement and philosophy, and especially because of the punishment with which God had avenged him.

CHAPTER XI: Alexander.

1. But as on account of his great age Narcissus 1 was no longer able to perform his official duties, [1] the Providence of God called to the office with him, by a revelation given him in a night vision, the above-mentioned Alexander, who was then bishop of another parish. [2] 2. Thereupon, as by Divine direction, he journeyed from the land of Cappadocia, where he first held the episcopate, to Jerusalem, in consequence of a vow and for the sake of information in regard to its places. [3] They received , him there with great cordiality, and would not permit him to return, because of another revelation seen by them at night, which uttered the clearest message to the most zealous among them. For it made known that if they would go outside the gates, they would receive the bishop foreordained for them by God. And having done this, with the unanimous consent of the bishops of the neighboring churches, they constrained him to remain. 3. Alexander, himself, in private letters to the Antinoites, which are still preserved among us, mentions the joint episcopate of Narcissus and himself, writing in these words at the end of the epistle:

4. "Narcissus salutes you, who held the episcopate here before me, and is now associated with me in prayers, being one hundred and sixteen years of age; and he exhorts you, as I do, to be of one mind."

These things took place in this manner. But, on the death of Serapion, [5] Asclepiades, [6] who had been himself distinguished among the confessors [7] during the persecution, succeeded to the episcopate of the church at Antioch. Alexander alludes to his appointment, writing thus to the church at Antioch:

5. "Alexander, a servant and prisoner of Jesus 5 Christ, to the blessed church of Antioch, greeting in the Lord. The Lord hath made my bonds during the time of my imprisonment light and easy, since I learned that, by the Divine Providence, Asclepiades, who in regard to the true faith is eminently qualified, has undertaken the bishopric of your holy church at Antioch."

6. He indicates that he sent this epistle by Clement, [8] writing toward its close as follows:

"My honored brethren, [9] have sent this letter to you by Clement, the blessed presbyter, a man virtuous and approved, whom ye yourselves also know and will recognize. Being here, in the providence and oversight of the Master, he has strengthened and built up the Church of the Lord."

CHAPTER XII: Serapion and his Extant Works.

1. It is probable that others have preserved other memorials of Serapion's [1] literary industry, [2] but there have reached us only those addressed to a certain Domninus, who, in the time of persecution, fell away from faith in Christ to the Jewish will-worship; [3] and those addressed to Pontius and Caricus, [4] ecclesiastical men, and other letters to different persons, and still another work composed by him on the so-called Gospel of Peter. [5] 2. He wrote this last to refute the falsehoods which that Gospel contained, on account of some in the parish of Rhossus [6] who had been led astray by it into heterodox notions. It may be well to give some brief extracts from his work, showing his opinion of the book. He writes as follows:

3. "For we, brethren, receive both Peter and the other apostles as Christ; but we reject intelligently the writings falsely ascribed to them, knowing that such were not handed down to us. 4. When I visited you I that all of you held the true faith, and as I had not read the Gospel which they put forward under the name of Peter, I said, ' If this is the only thing which occasions dispute among you, let it be read.' But now having learned, from what has been told me, that their mind was involved in some heresy, I will hasten to come to you again. Therefore, brethren, expect me shortly. 5. But you will learn, brethren, from what has been written to you, that we perceived the nature of the heresy of Marcianus, [7] and that, not understanding', what he was saying, he contradicted himself. 6. For having obtained this Gospel from others who had studied it diligently, namely, from the successors of those who first used k, whom we call Docet' [8] (for most of their opinions are connected with the teaching of that school [9]) we have been able to read it through, and we find many things in accordance with the true doctrine of the Saviour, but some things added to that doctrine, which we have pointed out for you farther on."

So much in regard to Serapion.

CHAPTER XIII: The Writings of Clement.[1]

1. All the eight Stromata of Clement are preserved among us, and have been given by him the following title: "Titus Flavius Clement's Stromata of Gnostic Notes on the True Philosophy." [2] 2. The books entitled Hypotyposes [3] are of the same number. In them he mentions Pantaenus [4] by name as his teacher, and gives his opinions and traditions. 3. Besides these there is his Hortatory Discourse addressed to the Greeks; [5] three books of a work entitled the Instructor; [6] another with the title What Rich Man is Saved? [7] the work on the Passover; [8] discussions on Fasting and on Evil Speaking; [9] the Hortatory Discourse on Patience, or To Those Recently Baptized; 20 and the one bearing the title Ecclesiastical Canon, or Against the Judaizers, [11] which he dedicated to Alexander, the bishop mentioned above. 4. In the Stromata, he has not only treated extensively [12] of the Divine Scripture, but he also quotes from the Greek writers whenever anything that they have said seems to him profitable. He elucidates the opinions of many, both Greeks and barbarians. 5. He also refutes the false doctrines of the heresiarchs, and besides this, reviews a large portion of history, giving us specimens of very various learning; with all the rest he mingles the views of philosophers. It is likely that on this account he gave his work the appropriate title of Stromata. [13]

6. He makes use also in these works of testimonies from the disputed Scriptures, [14] the so-called Wisdom of Solomon, [15] and of Jesus, the son of Sirach, and the Epistle to the Hebrews, [16] and those of Barnabas, [17] and Clement[18] and Jude. [19] 7. He mentions also Tatian's [20] Discourse to the Greeks, and speaks of Cassianus [21] as the author of a chronological work. He refers to the Jewish authors Philo, [22] Aristobulus, [28] Josephus, [24] Demetrius, [25] and Eupolemus, [26] as showing, all of them, in their works, that Moses and the Jewish race existed before the earliest origin of the Greeks. 8. These books abound also in much other learning. In the first of them [27] the author speaks of himself as next after the successors of the apostles. In them he promises also to write a commentary on Genesis. (28) 9. In his book on the Passover (29) he acknowledges that he had been urged by his friends to commit to writing, for posterity, the traditions which he had heard from the ancient presbyters; and in the same work he mentions Melito and Iren'us, and certain others, and gives extracts from their writings.

CHAPTER XIV: The Scriptures mentioned by him.

1. To sum up briefly, he has given in the Hypotyposes (1) abridged accounts of all canonical Scripture, not omitting the disputed books, (2) - - I refer to Jude and the other Catholic epistles, and Barnabas (3) and the so-called Apocalypse of Peter. (4) 2. He says that the Epistle to the Hebrews (5) is the work of Paul, and that it was written to the Hebrews in the Hebrew language; but that Luke translated it carefully and published it for the Greeks, and hence the same style of expression is found in this epistle and in the Acts. 3. But he says that the words, Paul the Apostle, were probably not prefixed, because, in sending it to the Hebrews, who were prejudiced and suspicious of him, he wisely did not wish to repel them at the very beginning by giving his name. 4. Farther on he says: "But now, as the blessed presbyter said, since the Lord being the apostle of the Almighty, was sent to the Hebrews, Paul, as sent to the Gentiles, on account of his modesty did not subscribe himself an apostle of the Hebrews, through respect for the Lord, and because being a herald and apostle of the Gentiles he wrote to the Hebrews out of his superabundance."

5. Again, in the same books, Clement gives the tradition of the earliest presbyters, as to the order of the Gospels, in the following manner: The Gospels containing the genealogies, he says, were written first. 6. The Gospel according to Mark (6) had this occasion. As Peter had preached the Word publicly at Rome, and declared the Gospel by the Spirit, many who were present requested that Mark, who had followed him for a long time and remembered his sayings, should write them out. And having composed the Gospel he gave it to those who had requested it. 7. When Peter learned of this, he neither directly forbade nor encouraged it. But, last of all, John, perceiving that the external (7) facts had been made plain in the Gospel, being urged by his friends, and inspired by the Spirit, composed a spiritual Gospel. (8) This is the account of Clement.

8. Again the above-mentioned Alexander, (9) in a certain letter to Origen, refers to Clement, and at the same time to Pantaenus, as being among his familiar acquaintances. He writes as follows:

"For this, as thou knowest, was the will of God, that the ancestral friendship existing between us should remain unshaken; nay, rather should be warmer and stronger. 9. For we know well those blessed fathers who have trodden the way before us, with whom we shall soon be; (10) Pantaenus, the truly blessed man and master, and the holy Clement, my master and benefactor, and if there is any other like them, through whom I became acquainted with thee, the best in everything, my master and brother." (11)

10. So much for these matters. But Adamantius, 10 (12) -- for this also was a name of Origen, -- when Zephyrinus (13) was bishop of Rome, visited Rome, "desiring," as he himself somewhere says, "to see the most ancient church of Rome." After a short stay there he returned to Alexandria. 11. And he performed the duties of catechetical instruction there with great zeal; Demetrius, who was bishop there at that time, urging and even entreating him to work diligently for the benefit of the brethren. (14)

CHAPTER XV: Heraclas. (1)

But when he saw that he had not time for the deeper study of divine things, and for the investigation and interpretation of the Sacred Scriptures, and also for the instruction of those who came to him,-- for coming, one after another, from morning till evening to be taught by him, they scarcely gave him time to breathe, --he divided the multitude. And from those whom he knew well, he selected Heraclas, who was a zealous student of divine things, and in other respects a very learned man, not ignorant of philosophy, and made him his associate in the work of instruction. He entrusted to him the elementary training of beginners, but reserved for himself the teaching of those who were farther advanced.

CHAPTER XVI: Origen's Earnest Study of the Divine Scriptures.

1. So earnest and assiduous was Origen's research into the divine words that he learned the Hebrew language, (1) and procured as his own the original Hebrew Scriptures which were in the hands of the Jews. He investigated also the works of other translators of the Sacred Scriptures besides the Seventy. (2) And in addition to the well-known translations of Aquila, (3) Symmachus, (4) and Theodotion, (5) he discovered certain others which had been concealed from remote times, -- in what out-of-the-way corners I know not, -- and by his search he brought them to light. (6) 2. Since he did not know the authors, he simply stated that he had found this one in Nicopolis near Actium (7) and that one in some other place. 3. In the Hexapla (8) of the Psalms, after the four prominent translations, he adds not only a fifth, but also a sixth and seventh. (9) He states of one of these that he found it in a jar in Jericho in the time of Antoninus, the son of Severus. 4. Having collected all of these, he divided them into sections, and placed them opposite each other, with the Hebrew text itself. He thus left us the copies of the so-called Hexapla. He arranged also separately an edition of Aquila and Symmachus and Theodotion with the Septuagint, in the Tetrapla. (10)

CHAPTER XVII: The Translator Symmachus. (1)

As to these translators it should be stated that Symmachus was an Ebionite. But the heresy of the Ebionites, as it is called, asserts that Christ was the son of Joseph and Mary, considering him a mere man, and insists strongly on keeping the law in a Jewish manner, as we have seen already in this history. (2) Commentaries of Symmachus are still extant in which he appears to support this heresy by attacking the Gospel of Matthew. (3) Origen states that he obtained these and other commentaries of Symmachus on the Scriptures from a certain Juliana, (4) who, he says, received the books by inheritance from Symmachus himself.


1. About this time Ambrose, (1) who held the heresy of Valentinus, (2) was convinced by Origen's presentation of the truth, and, as if his mind were illumined by light, he accepted the orthodox doctrine of the Church. 2. Many others also, drawn by the fame of Origen's learning, which resounded everywhere, came to him to make trial of his skill in sacred literature. And a great many heretics, and not a few of the most distinguished philosophers, studied under him diligently, receiving instruction from him not only in divine things, but also in secular philosophy. 3. For when he perceived that any persons had superior intelligence he instructed them also in philosophic branches --in geometry, arithmetic, and other preparatory studies--and then advanced to the systems (3) of the philosophers and explained their writings. And he made observations and comments upon each of them, so that he became celebrated as a great philosopher even among the Greeks themselves. 4. And he instructed many of the less learned in the common school branches, (4) saying that these would be no small help to them in the study and understanding of the Divine Scriptures. On this account he considered it especially necessary for himself to be skilled in secular and philosophic learning. (5)

CHAPTER XIX: Circumstances related of Origen.

1. The Greek philosophers of his age are witnesses to his proficiency in these subjects. We find frequent mention of him in their writings. Sometimes they dedicated their own works to him; again, they submitted their labors to him as a teacher for his judgment. 2. Why need we say these things when even Porphyry, (1) who lived in Sicily in our own times and wrote books against us, attempting to traduce the Divine Scriptures by them, mentions those who have interpreted them; and being unable in any way to find a base accusation against the doctrines, for lack of arguments turns to reviling and calumniating their interpreters, attempting especially to slander Origen, whom he says he knew in his youth. 3. But truly, without knowing it, he commends the man; telling the truth about him in some cases where he could not do otherwise; but uttering falsehoods where he thinks he will not be detected. Sometimes he accuses him as a Christian; again he describes his proficiency in philosophic learning. But hear his own words:

4. "Some persons, desiring to find a solution of the baseness of the Jewish Scriptures rather than abandon them, have had recourse to explanations inconsistent and incongruous with the words written, which explanations, instead of supplying a defense of the foreigners, contain rather approval and praise of themselves. For they boast that the plain words of Moses are enigmas, and regard them as oracles full of hidden mysteries; and having bewildered the mental judgment by folly, they make their explanations." Farther on he says:

5. "As an example of this absurdity take a man whom I met when I was young, and who was then greatly celebrated and still is, on account of the writings which he has left. I refer to Origen, who is highly honored by the teachers of these doctrines. 6. For this man, having been a hearer of Ammonius, (2) who had attained the greatest proficiency in philosophy of any in our day, derived much benefit from his teacher in the knowledge of the sciences; but as to the correct choice of life, he pursued a course opposite to his. 7. For Ammonius, being a Christian, and brought up by Christian parents, when he gave himself to study and to philosophy straightway conformed to the life required by the laws. But Origen, having been educated as a Greek in Greek literature, went over to the barbarian recklessness. (3) And carrying over the learning which he had obtained, he hawked it about, in his life conducting himself as a Christian and contrary to the laws, but in his opinions of material things and of the Deity being like a Greek, and mingling Grecian teachings with foreign fables. (4) 8. For he was continually studying Plato, and he busied himself with the writings of Numenius (5) and Cronius, (6) Apollophanes, (7) Longinus, (8) Moderatus, (9) and Nicomachus, (10) and those famous among the Pythagoreans. And he used the books of Ch'remon (11) the Stoic, and of Cornutus. (12) Becoming acquainted through them with the figurative interpretation of the Grecian mysteries, he applied it to the Jewish Scriptures." (13)

9. These things are said by Porphyry in the third book of his work against the Christians. (14) He speaks truly of the industry and learning of the man, but plainly utters a falsehood (for what will not an opposer of Christians do?) when he says that he went over from the Greeks, (15) and that Ammonius fell from a life of piety into heathen customs. 10. For the doctrine of Christ was taught to Origen by his parents, as we have shown above. And Ammonius held the divine philosophy unshaken and unadulterated to the end of his life. (16) His works yet extant show this, as he is celebrated among many for the writings which he has left. For example, the work entitled The Harmony of Moses and Jesus, and such others as are in the possession of the learned. 11. These things are sufficient to evince the slander of the false accuser, and also the proficiency of Origen in Grecian learning. He defends his diligence in this direction against some who blamed him for it, in a certain epistle, (17) where he writes as follows:

12. When I devoted myself to the word, and the fame of my proficiency went abroad, and when heretics and persons conversant with Grecian learning, and particularly with philosophy, came to me, it seemed necessary that I should examine the doctrines of the heretics, and what the philosophers say concerning the truth. 13. And in this we have followed Pantaenus, (18) who benefited many before our time by his thorough preparation in such things, and also Heraclas, (19) who is now a member of the presbytery of Alexandria. I found him with the teacher of philosophic learning, with whom he had already continued five years before I began to hear lectures on those subjects. (20) 14. And though he had formerly worn the common dress, he laid it aside and assumed and still wears the philosopher's garment; (21) and he continues the earnest investigation of Greek works."

15. He says these things in defending himself for his study of Grecian literature. About this time, while he was still at Alexandria, a soldier came and delivered a letter from the governor of Arabia (22) to Demetrius, bishop of the parish, and to the prefect of Egypt who was in office at that time, requesting that they would with all speed send Origen to him for an interview. Being sent by them, he went to Arabia. And having in a short time accomplished the object of his visit, he returned to Alexandria. 16. But sometime after a considerable war broke out in the city, (23) and he departed from Alexandria. And thinking that it would be unsafe for him to remain in Egypt, he went to Palestine and abode in Caesarea. While there the bishops of the church in that country (24) requested him to preach and expound the Scriptures publicly, although he had not yet been ordained as presbyter. (25) 17. This is evident from what Alexander, (26) bishop of Jerusalem and Theoctistus (27) of Caesarea, wrote to Demetrius (28) in regard to the matter, defending themselves thus:

"He has stated in his letter that such a thing was never heard of before, neither has hitherto taken place, that laymen should preach in the presence of bishops. I know not how he comes to say what is plainly untrue. 18. For whenever persons able to instruct the brethren are found, they are exhorted by the holy bishops to preach to the people. Thus in Laranda, Euelpis by Neon; and in Iconium, Paulinus by Celsus; and in Synada, Theodorus by Atticus, our blessed brethren. (29) And probably this has been done in other places unknown to us."

He was honored in this manner while yet a young man, not only by his countrymen, but also by foreign bishops. (30) 19. But Demetrius sent for him by letter, and urged him through members and deacons of the church to return to Alexandria. So he returned and resumed his accustomed duties.

CHAPTER XX: The Extant Works of the Writers of that Age.

1. There flourished many learned men in the Church at that time, whose letters to each other have been preserved and are easily accessible. They have been kept until our time in the library at AElia, (1) which was established by Alexander, who at that time presided over that church. We have been able to gather from that library material for our present work. 2. Among these Beryllus (2) has left us, besides letters and treatises, various elegant works. He was bishop of Bostra in Arabia. Likewise also Hippolytus, (3) who presided over another church, has left writings. 3. There has reached us also a dialogue of Caius, (4) a very learned man, which was held at Rome under Zephyrinus, (5) with Proclus, who contended for the Phrygian heresy. In this he curbs the rashness and boldness of his opponents in setting forth new Scriptures. He mentions only thirteen epistles of the holy apostle, not counting that to the Hebrews (6) with the others. And unto our day there are some among the Romans who do not consider this a work of the apostle.

CHAPTER XXI: The Bishops that were well known at that Time.

1. After Antoninus (1) had reigned seven years and six months, Macrinus succeeded him. He held the government but a year, and was succeeded by another Antoninus. During his first year the Roman bishop, Zephyrinus, (2) having held his office for eighteen years, died, and Callistus (3) received the episcopate. 2. He continued for five years, and was succeeded by Urbanus. (4) After this, Alexander became Roman emperor, Antoninus having reigned but four years. (5) At this time Philetus (6) also succeeded Asclepiades (7) in the church of Antioch.

3. The mother of the emperor, Mammaea (8) by name, was a most pious woman, if there ever was one, and of religious life. When the fame of Origen had extended everywhere and had come even to her ears, she desired greatly to see the man, and above all things to make trial of his celebrated understanding of divine things. 4. Staying for a time in Antioch, she sent for him with a military escort. Having remained with her a while and shown her many things which were for the glory of the Lord and of the excellence of the divine teaching, he hastened back to his accustomed work.

CHAPTER XXII: The Works of Hippolytus which have reached us.

1. At that time Hippolytus, (1) besides many other treatises, wrote a work on the pass over. (2) He gives in this a chronological table, and presents a certain paschal canon of sixteen years, bringing the time down to the first year of the Emperor Alexander. 2. Of his other writings the following have reached us: On the Hexaemeron, (3) On the Works after the Hexaemeron, (4) Against Marcion, (5) On the Song of Songs, (6) On Portions of Ezekiel, (7) On the Passover, (8) Against All the Heresies; (9) and you can find many other works preserved by many.

CHAPTER XXIII: Origen's Zeal and his Elevation to the Presbyterate.

1. At that time Origen began his commentaries on the Divine Scriptures, being urged thereto by Ambrose, (1) who employed innumerable incentives, not only exhorting him by word, but also furnishing abundant means. 2. For he dictated to more than seven amanuenses, who relieved each other at appointed times. And he employed no fewer copyists, besides girls who were skilled in elegant writing. For all these Ambrose furnished the necessary expense in abundance, manifesting himself an inexpressible earnestness in diligence and zeal for the divine oracles, by which he especially pressed him on to the preparation of his commentaries. 3. While these things were in progress, Urbanus, (2) who had been for eight years bishop of the Roman church, was succeeded by Pontianus, (3) and Zebinus (4) succeeded Philetus (5) in Antioch. 4. At this time Origen was sent to Greece on account of a pressing necessity in connection with ecclesiastical affairs, (6) and went through Palestine, and was ordained as presbyter in Caesarea by the bishops of that country. The matters that were agitated concerning him on this account, and the decisions on these matters by those who presided over the churches, besides the other works concerning the divine word which he published while in his prime, demand a separate treatise. We have written of them to some extent in the second book of the Defense which we have composed in his behalf. (7)

CHAPTER XXIV: The Commentaries which he prepared at Alexandria.

1. It may be well to add that in the sixth book of his exposition of the Gospel of John (1) he states that he prepared the first five while in Alexandria. Of his work on the entire Gospel only twenty-two volumes have come down to us. 2. In the ninth of those on Genesis, (2) of which there are twelve in all, he states that not only the preceding eight had been composed at Alexandria, but also those on the first twenty-five Psalms (3) and on Lamentations. (4) Of these last five volumes have reached us. In them he mentions also his books On the Resurrection, (5) of which there are two. 3. He wrote also the books De Principiis (6) before leaving Alexandria; and the discourses entitled Stromata, (7) ten in number, he composed in the same city during the reign of Alexander, as the notes by his own hand preceding the volumes indicate.

CHAPTER XXV: His Review of the Canonical Scriptures

1. When expounding the first Psalm, (1) he gives a catalogue of the sacred Scriptures of the Old Testament (2) as follows:

"It should be stated that the canonical books, as the Hebrews have handed them down, are twenty-two; corresponding with the number of their letters." Farther on he says:

2. "The twenty-two books of the Hebrews are the following: That which is called by us Genesis, but by the Hebrews, from the beginning of the book, Bresith, (3) which means, 'In the beginning'; Exodus, Welesmoth, (3a) that is, 'These are the names'; Leviticus, Wikra, 'And he called'; Numbers, Ammesphekodeim; Deuteronomy, Eleaddebareim, ' These are the words'; Jesus, the son of Nave, Josoue ben Noun; Judges and Ruth, among the m in one book, Saphateim; the First and Second of Kings, among them one, Samouel, that is, 'The called of God'; the Third and Fourth of Kings in one, Wammelch David, that is, 'The kingdom of David'; of the Chronicles, the First and Second in one, Dabreiamein, that is, 'Records of days'; Esdras, (4) First and Second in one, Ezra, that is, 'An assistant'; the book of Psalms, Spharthelleim; the Proverbs of Solomon, Me-loth; Ecclesiastes, Koelth; the Song of Songs (not, as some suppose, Songs of Songs), Sir Hassirim; Isaiah, Jessia; Jeremiah, with Lamentations and the epistle in one, Jeremia; Daniel, Daniel; Ezekiel, Jezekiel; Job, Job; Esther, Esther. And besides these there are the Maccabees, which are entitled Sarbeth Sabanaiel. (5) He gives these in the above-mentioned work.

3. In his first book on Matthew's Gospel, (6) maintaining the Canon of the Church, he testifies that he knows only four Gospels, writing as follows:

4. "Among the four Gospels, (7) which are the only indisputable ones in the Church of God under heaven, I have learned by tradition that the first was written by Matthew, who was once a publican, but afterwards an apostle of Jesus Christ, and it was prepared for the converts from Judaism, and published in the Hebrew language. (8) 5. The second is by Mark, who composed it according to the instructions of Peter, (9) who in his Catholic epistle acknowledges him as a son, saying, 'The church that is at Babylon elected together with you, saluteth you, and so doth Marcus, my son.' (10) 6. And the third by Luke, the Gospel commended by Paul, (11) and composed for Gentile converts. Last of all that by John." (12)

7. In the fifth book of his Expositions of John's Gospel, he speaks thus concerning the epistles of the apostles: (13) "But he who was 'made sufficient to be a minister of the New Testament, not of the letter, but of the Spirit,' (14) that is, Paul, who 'fully preached the Gospel from Jerusalem and round about even unto Illyricum,' (15) did not write to all the churches which he had instructed and to those to which he wrote he sent but few lines. (16) 8. And Peter, on whom the Church of Christ is built, 'against which the gates of hell shall not prevail,' (17) has left one acknowledged epistle; perhaps also a second, but this is doubtful. (18) 9. Why need we speak of him who reclined upon the bosom of Jesus, (19) John, who has left us one Gospel, (20) though he confessed that he might write so many that the world could not contain them? (21) And he wrote also the Apocalypse, but was commanded to keep silence and not to write the words of the seven thunders. (22) 10. He has left also an epistle of very few lines; perhaps also a second and third; but not all consider them genuine, and together they do not contain hundred lines."

11. In addition he makes the following statements 11 in regard to the Epistle to the Hebrews (23) in his Homilies upon it:

"That the verbal style of the epistle entitled 'To the Hebrews,' is not rude like the language of the apostle, who acknowledged himself 'rude in speech,' (24) that is, in expression; but that its diction is purer Greek, any one who has the power to discern differences of phraseology will acknowledge. 12. Moreover, that the thoughts of the epistle are admirable, and not inferior to the acknowledged apostolic writings, any one who carefully examines the apostolic text (25) will admit." 13. Farther on he adds:

"If I gave my opinion, I should say that the thoughts are those of the apostle, but the diction and phraseology are those of some one who remembered the apostolic teachings, and wrote down at his leisure what had been said by his teacher. Therefore if any church holds that this epistle is by Paul, let it be commended for this. For not without reason have the ancients handed it down as Paul's. 14. But who wrote the epistle, in truth, God knows. The statement of some who have gone before us is that Clement, bishop of the Romans, wrote the epistle, and of others that Luke, the author of the Gospel and the Acts, wrote it." But let this suffice on these matters.

CHAPTER XXVI: Heraclas becomes Bishop of Alexandria.

It was in the tenth year of the above-mentioned reign that Origen removed from Alexandria to Caesarea, (1) leaving the charge of the catechetical school in that city to Heraclas. Not long afterward Demetrius, bishop of the church of Alexandria, died, having held the office for forty- three full years, (2) and Heraclas succeeded him. At this time Firmilianus, (3) bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, was conspicuous.

CHAPTER XXVII:How the Bishops regarded Origen.

He was so earnestly affected toward Origen, that he urged him to come to that country for the benefit of the churches, and moreover he visited him in Judea, remaining with him for some time, for the sake of improvement in divine things. And Alexander, (1) bishop of Jerusalem, and Theoctistus, (2) bishop of Caesarea, at-tended on him constantly, (3) as their only teacher, and allowed (4) him to expound the Divine Scriptures, and to perform the other duties pertaining to ecclesiastical discourse. (5)

CHAPTER XXVIII: The Persecution under Maximinus.

The Roman emperor, Alexander, having finished his reign in thirteen years, was succeeded by Maximinus Caesar. (1) On account of his hatred toward the household of Alexander, (2) which contained many believers, he began a persecution, commanding that only the rulers of the churches should be put to death, as responsible for the Gospel teaching. Thereupon Origen composed his work On Martyrdom, (3) and dedicated it to Ambrose and Protoctetus, (4) a presbyter of the parish of Caesarea, because in the persecution there had come upon them both unusual hardships, in which it is reported that they were eminent in confession during the reign of Maximinus, which lasted but three years. Origen has noted this as the time of the persecution in the twenty-second book of his Commentaries on John, and in several epistles. (5)

CHAPTER XXIX: Fabianus, who was wonderfully designated Bishop of Rome by God.

1. Gordianus succeeded Maximinus as Roman emperor; (1) and Pontianus, (2) who had been bishop of the church at Rome for six years, was succeeded by Anteros. (3) After he had held the office for a month, Fabianus (4) succeeded him. 2. They say (5) that Fabianus having come, after the death of Anteros, with others from the country, was staying at Rome, and that while there he was chosen to the office through a most wonderful manifestation of divine and heavenly grace. 3. For when all the brethren had assembled to select by vote him who should succeed to the episcopate of the church, several renowned and honorable men were in the minds of many, but Fabianus, although present, was in the mind of none. But they relate that suddenly a dove flying down lighted on his head, resembling the descent of the Holy Spirit on the Saviour in the form of a dove. 4. Thereupon all the people, as if moved by one Divine Spirit, with all eagerness and unanimity cried out that he was worthy, and without delay they took him and placed him upon the episcopal seat. (6)

5. About that time Zebinus, (7) bishop of Antioch died, and Babylas (8) succeeded him.

And in Alexandria Heraclas, (9) having received the episcopal office after Demetrius, (10) was succeeded in the charge of the catechetical school by Dionysius, (11) who had also been one of Origen's pupils.

CHAPTER XXX: The Pupils of Origen.

While Origen was carrying on his customary duties in Caesarea, many pupils came to him not only from the vicinity, but also from other countries. Among these Theodorus, the same that was distinguished among the bishops of our day under the name of Gregory, (1) and his brother Athenodorus, (2) we know to have been especially celebrated. Finding them deeply interested in Greek and Roman learning, he infused into them a love of philosophy, and led them to exchange their old zeal for the study of divinity. Remaining with him five years, they made such progress in divine things, that although they were still young, both of them were honored with a bishopric in the churches of Pontus.

CHAPTER XXXI: Africanus.

1. At this time also Africanus, (1) the writer of the books entitled Cesti, was well known. There is extant an epistle of his to Origen, expressing doubts (2) of the story of Susannah in Daniel, as being spurious and fictitious. Origen answered this very fully. 2. Other works of the same Africanus which have reached us are his five books on Chronology, a work accurately and laboriously prepared. He says in this that he went to Alexandria on account of the great fame of Heraclas, (3) who excelled especially in philosophic studies and other Greek learning, and whose appointment to the bishopric of the church there we have already mentioned. 3. There is extant also another epistle from the same Africanus to Aristides on the supposed discrepancy between Matthew and Luke in the Genealogies of Christ. In this he shows clearly the agreement of the evangelists, from an account which had come down to him, which we have already given in its proper place in the first book of this work. (4)

CHAPTER XXXII: The Commentaries which Origen composed in Caesarea in Palestine.

1. About this time Origen prepared his Commentaries on Isaiah (1) and on Ezekiel. (2) Of the former there have come down to us thirty books, as far as the third part of Isaiah, to the vision of the beasts in the desert; (3) on Ezekiel twenty-five books, which are all that he wrote on the whole prophet. 2. Being at that time in Athens, (4) he finished his work on Ezekiel and commenced his Commentaries on the Song of Songs, (5) which he carried forward to the fifth book. After his return to Caesarea, he completed these also, ten books in number. 3. But why should we give in this history an accurate catalogue of the man's works, which would require a separate treatise? (6) we have furnished this also in our narrative of the life of Pamphilus, (7) a holy martyr of our own time. After showing how great the diligence of Pamphilus was in divine things, we give in that a catalogue of the library which he collected of the works of Origen and of other ecclesiastical writers, Whoever desires may learn readily from this which of Origen's works have reached us. But we must proceed now with our history.

CHAPTER XXXIII: The Error of Beryllus.

1. Beryllus, (1) whom we mentioned recently as bishop of Bostra in Arabia, turned aside from the ecclesiastical standard (2) and attempted to introduce ideas foreign to the faith. He dared to assert that our Saviour and Lord did not pre-exist in a distinct form of being of his own (3) before his abode among men, and that he does not possess a divinity of his own, (4) but only that of the Father dwelling in him. 2. Many bishops carried on investigations and discussions with him on this matter, and Origen having been invited with the others, went down at first for a conference with him to ascertain his real opinion. But when he understood his views, and perceived that they were erroneous, having persuaded him by argument, and convinced him by demonstration, he brought him back to the true doctrine, and restored him to his former sound opinion. 3. There are still extant writings of Beryllus and of the synod held on his account, which contain the questions put to him by Origen, and the discussions which were carried on in his parish, as well as all the things done at that time.

4. The elder brethren among us s have handed down many other facts respecting Origen which I think proper to omit, as not pertaining to this work. But whatever it has seemed necessary to record about him can be found in the Apology in his behalf written by us and Pamphilus, the holy martyr of our day. We prepared this carefully and did the work jointly on account of faultfinders. (6)

CHAPTER XXXIV: Philip Caesar.

Gordianus had been Roman emperor for six years when Philip, with his son Philip, succeeded him. (1) It is reported that he, being a Christian desired, on the day of the last paschal vigil, to share with the multitude in the prayers of the Church, (2) but that he was not permitted to enter, by him who then presided, (3) until he had made confession and had numbered himself among those who were reckoned as transgressors and who occupied the place of penance. (4) For if he had not done this, he would never have been received by him, on account of the many crimes which he had committed. It is said that he obeyed readily, manifesting in his conduct a genuine and pious fear of God.

CHAPTER XXXV: Dionysius succeeds Heraclas in the Episcopate.

In the third year of this emperor, Heraclas died, having held his office for sixteen years, and Dionysius (2) received the episcopate of the churches of Alexandria.

CHAPTER XXXVI: Other Works of Origen.

1. At this time, as the faith extended and our doctrine was proclaimed boldly before all, (1) Origen, being, as they say, over sixty years old, (2) and having gained great facility by his long practice, very properly permitted his public discourses to be taken down by stenographers, a thing which he had never before allowed. 2. He also at this time composed a work of eight books in answer to that entitled True Discourse, which had been written against us by Celsus (3) the Epicurean, and the twenty-five books on the Gospel of Matthew, (4) besides those on the Twelve Prophets, of which we have found only twenty-five. (5) 3. There is extant also an epistle (6) of his to the Emperor Philip, and another to Severa his wife, with several others to different persons. We have arranged in distinct books to the number of one hundred, so that they might be no longer scattered, as many of these as we have been able to collect, (7) which have been preserved here and there by different persons. 4. He wrote also to Fabianus(8) bishop of Rome, and to many other rulers of the churches concerning his orthodoxy. You have examples of these in the eighth book of the Apology (9) which we have written in his behalf.

CHAPTER XXXVII: The Dissension of the Arabians. (1)

About the same time others arose in Arabia, putting forward a doctrine foreign to the truth. They said that during the present time the human soul dies and perishes with the body, but that at the time of the resurrection they will be renewed together. And at that time also a synod of considerable size assembled, and Origen, being again invited thither, spoke publicly on the question with such effect that the opinions of those who had formerly fallen were changed.

CHAPTER XXXVIII: The Heresy of the Elkesites.

Another error also arose at this time, called the heresy of the Elkesites, (1) which was extinguished in the very beginning. Origen speaks of it in this manner in a public homily on the eighty-second Psalm: (2)

"A certain man (3) came just now, puffed up greatly with his own ability, proclaiming that godless and impious opinion which has appeared lately in the churches, styled 'of the Elkesites.' I will show you what evil things that opinion teaches, that you may not be carried away by it. It rejects certain parts of every scripture. Again it uses portions of the Old Testament and the Gospel, but rejects the apostle (4) altogether. It says that to deny Christ is an indifferent matter, and that he who understands will, under necessity, deny with his mouth, but not in his heart. They produce a certain book which they say fell from heaven. They hold that whoever hears and believes (5) this shall receive remission of sins, another remission than that which Jesus Christ has given."

Such is the account of these persons.

CHAPTER XXXIX: The Persecution under Decius, and the Sufferings of Origen.

1. After a reign of seven years Philip was succeeded by Decius. (1) On account of his hatred of Philip, he commenced a persecution of the churches, in which Fabianus (2) suffered martyrdom at Rome, and Cornelius succeeded him in the episcopate. (3) 2. In Palestine, Alexander, (4) bishop of the church of Jerusalem, was brought again on Christ's account before the governor's judgment seat in Caesarea, and having acquitted himself nobly in a second confession was cast into prison, crowned with the hoary locks of venerable age. 3. And after his honorable and illustrious confession at the tribunal of the governor, he fell asleep in prison, and Mazabanes (5) became his successor in the bishopric of Jerusalem. 3. Babylas (6) in Antioch, having like Alexander passed away in prison after hi confession, was succeeded by Fabius in the episcopate of that church.

5. But how many and how great things came upon Origen in the persecution, and what was their final result, -- as the demon of evil marshaled all his forces, and fought against the man with his utmost craft and power, assaulting him beyond all others against whom he con- tended at that time, --and what and how many things he endured for the word of Christ, bonds and bodily tortures and torments under the iron collar and in the dungeon; and how for many days with his feet stretched four spaces in the stooks (8) he bore patiently the threats of fire and whatever other things were inflicted by his enemies; and how his sufferings terminated, as his judge strove eagerly with all his might not to end his life; and what words he left after these things, full of comfort to those needing aid, a great many of his epistles show with truth and accuracy. (9)

CHAPTER XL: The Events which happened to Dionysius. (1)

1. I shall quote from the epistle of Dionysius to Germanus (2) an account of what befell the former. Speaking of himself, he writes as follows:

"I speak before God, and he knows that I do not lie. I did not flee on my own impulse nor without divine direction. 2. But even before this, at the very hour when the Decian persecution was commanded, Sabinus (3) sent a frumentarius (4) to search for me, and I remained at home four days awaiting his arrival. But he went about examining all places, -- roads, rivers, and fields, --where he thought I might be concealed or on the way. But he was smitten with blindness, and did not find the house, (5) for he did not suppose, that being pursued, I would remain at home. 3. And after the fourth day God commanded me to depart, and made a way for me in a wonderful manner; and I and my attendants (6) and many of the brethren went away together. And that this occurred through the providence of God was made manifest by what followed, in which perhaps we were useful to some." 4. Farther on he relates in this manner what happened to him after his flight:

"For about sunset, having been seized with those that were with me, I was taken by the soldiers to Taposiris, (7) but in the providence of God, Timothy (8) was not present and was not captured. But coming later, he found the house deserted and guarded by soldiers, and ourselves reduced to slavery." (9) 5. After a little he says:

"And what was the manner of his admirable management? for the truth shall be told. One of the country people met Timothy fleeing and disturbed, and inquired the cause of his haste. 6. And he told him the truth. And when the man heard it (he was on his way to a marriage feast, for it was customary to spend the entire night in such gatherings), he entered and announced it to those at the table. And they, as if on a preconcerted signal, arose with one impulse, and rushed out quickly and came and burst in upon us with a shout. Immediately the soldiers who were guarding us fled, and they came to us lying as we were upon the bare couches. 7. But I, God knows, thought at first that they were robbers who had come for spoil and plunder. So I remained upon the bed on which I was, clothed only in a linen garment, and offered them the rest of my clothing which was lying beside me. But they directed me to rise and come away quickly. 8. Then I understood why they were come, and I cried out, beseeching and entreating them to depart and leave us alone. And I requested them, if they desired to benefit me in any way, to anticipate those who were carrying me off, and cut off my head themselves. And when I had cried out in this manner, as my companions and partners in everything know, they raised me by force. But I threw myself on my back on the ground; and they seized me by the hands and feet and dragged me away. 9. And the witnesses of all these occurrences followed: Gaius, Faustus, Peter, and Paul.(10) But they who had seized me carried me out of the village hastily, and placing me on an ass without a saddle, bore me away." (11)

Dionysius relates these things respecting himself.

CHAPTER XLI: The Martyrs in Alexandria.

1. The same writer, in an epistle to Fabius, (1) bishop of Antioch, relates as follows the sufferings of the martyrs in Alexandria under Decius:

"The persecution among us did not begin with the royal decree, but preceded it an entire year. (2) The prophet and author of evils (3) to this city, whoever he was, previously moved and aroused against us the masses of the heathen, rekindling among them the superstition their country. 2. And being thus excited by him and finding full opportunity for any wickedness, they considered this the only pious service of their demons, that they should slay us.

3. "They seized first an old man named Metras(4) and commanded him to utter impious words. But as he would not obey, they beat him with clubs, and tore his face and eyes with sharp sticks, and dragged him out of the city and stoned him. 4. Then they carried to their idol temple a faithful woman, named Quinta, that they might force her to worship. And as she turned away in detestation, they bound her feet and dragged her through the entire city over the stone-paved streets, and dashed her against the millstones, and at the same time scourged her; then, taking her to the same place, they stoned her to death. 5. Then all with one impulse rushed to the homes of the pious, and they dragged forth whomsoever any one knew as a neighbor, and despoiled and plundered them. They took for themselves the more valuable property; but the poorer articles and those made of wood they scattered about and burned in the streets, so that the city appeared as if taken by an enemy. 6. But the brethren withdrew and went away, and 'took joyfully the spoiling of their goods,' (5) like those to whom Paul bore witness. I know of no one unless possibly some one who fell into their hands, who, up to this time, denied the Lord. 7. Then they seized also that most admirable virgin, Apollonia, an old woman, and, smiting her on the jaws, broke out all her teeth. And they made a fire outside the city and threatened to burn her alive if she would not join with them in their impious cries. And she, supplicating a little, was released, when she leaped eagerly into the fire and was consumed. 8. Then they seized Serapion in his own house, and tortured him with harsh cruelties, and having broken all his limbs, they threw him headlong from an upper story. And there was no street, nor public road, nor lane open to us, by night or day; for always and everywhere, all of them cried out that if any one would not repeat their impious words, he should immediately be dragged away and burned. 9. And matters continued thus for a considerable time. But a sedition and civil war came upon the wretched people and turned their cruelty toward us against one another. (6) So we breathed for a little while as they ceased from their rage against us. But presently the change from that milder reign was announced to us, (7) and great fear of what was threatened seized us. 10. For the decree arrived, almost like unto that most terrible time foretold by our Lord, which if it were possible would offend even the elect. (8) All truly were affrighted. 11. And many of the more eminent in their fear came forward immediately; (9) others who were in the public service were drawn on by their official duties; (10) others were urged on by their acquaintances. And as their names were called they approached the impure and impious sacrifices. Some of them were pale and trembled as if they were not about to sacrifice, but to be themselves sacrifices and offerings to the idols; so that they were jeered at by the multitude who stood around, as it was plain to every one that they were afraid either to die or to sacrifice. 12. But some advanced to the altars more readily, declaring boldly that they had never been Christians. Of these the prediction of our Lord is most true that they shall 'hardly' (11) be saved. Of the rest some followed the one, others the other of these classes, some fled and some were seized. 13. And of the latter some continued faithful until bonds and imprisonment, and some who had even been imprisoned for many days yet abjured the faith before they were brought to trial. Others having for a time endured great tortures finally retracted. 14. But the firm and blessed pillars of the Lord being strengthened by him, and having received vigor and might suitable and appropriate to the strong faith which they possessed, became admirable witnesses of his kingdom. 15. The first of these was Julian, a man who suffered so much with the gout that he was unable to stand or walk. They brought him forward with two others who carried him. One of these immediately denied. But the other, whose name was Cronion, and whose surname was Eunus, and the old man Julian himself, both of them having confessed the Lord, were carried on camels through the entire city, which, as you know, is a very large one, and in this elevated position were beaten and finally burned in a fierce fire, (12) surrounded by all the populace. 16. But a soldier, named Besas, who stood by them as they were led away rebuked those who insulted them. And they cried out against him, and this most manly warrior of God was arraigned, and having done nobly in the great contest for piety, was beheaded. 17. A certain other one, a Libyan by birth, but in name and blessedness a true Macar, was strongly urged by the judge to recant; but as he would not yield he was burned alive. After them Epimachus and Alexander, having remained in bonds for a long time, and endured countless agonies from scrapers (14) and scourges, were also consumed in a fierce fire. (15) 18. And with them there were four women. Ammonarium, a holy virgin, the judge tortured relentlessly and excessively, because she declared from the first that she would utter none of those things which he commanded; and having kept her promise truly, she was dragged away. The others were Mercuria, a very remarkable old woman, and Dionysia, the mother of many children, who did not love her own children above the Lord. (16) As the governor was ashamed of torturing thus ineffectually, and being always defeated by women, they were put to death by the sword, without the trial of tortures. For the champion, Ammonarium, endured these in behalf of all.

19. The Egyptians, Heron and Ater and Isidorus, and with them Dioscorus, (17) a boy about fifteen years old, were delivered up. At first the judge attempted to deceive the lad by fair words, as if he could be brought over easily, and then to force him by tortures, as one who would readily yield. But Dioscorus was neither persuaded nor constrained. 20. As the others remained firm, he scourged them cruelly and then delivered them to the fire. But admiring the manner in which Dioscorus had distinguished himself publicly, and his wise answers to his persuasions, he dismissed him, saying that on account of his youth he would give him time for repentance. And this most godly Dioscorus is among us now, awaiting a longer conflict and more severe contest. 20. But a certain Nemesion, who also was an Egyptian, was accused as an associate of robbers; but when he had cleared himself before the centurion of this charge most foreign to the truth, he was informed against as a Christian, and taken in bonds before the governor. And the most unrighteous magistrate inflicted on him tortures and scourgings double those which he executed on the robbers, and then burned him between the robbers, thus honoring the blessed man by the likeness to Christ. 22. A band of soldiers, Ammon and Zeno and Ptolemy and Ingenes, and with them an old man, Theophilus, were standing close together before the tribunal. And as a certain person who was being tried as a Christian, seemed inclined to deny, they standing by gnashed their teeth, and made signs with their faces and stretched out their hands, and gestured with their bodies. 23. And when the attention of all was turned to them, before any one else could seize them, they rushed up to the tribunal saying that they were Christians, so that the governor and his council were affrighted. And those who were on trial appeared most courageous in prospect of their sufferings, while their judges trembled. And they went exultingly from the tribunal rejoicing in their testimony; (18) God himself having caused them to triumph gloriously."

CHAPTER XLII: Others of whom Dionysius gives an Account.

1. "Many others, in cities and villages, were torn asunder by the heathen, of whom I will mention one as an illustration. Ischyrion (1) was employed as a steward by one of the rulers. His employer commanded him to sacrifice, and on his refusal insulted him, and as he remained firm, abused him. And as he still held out he seized a long staff and thrust it through his bowels (2) and slew him.

2. "Why need I speak of the multitude that wandered in the deserts and mountains, and perished by hunger, and thirst, and cold, and sickness, and robbers, and wild beasts? Those of them who survived are witnesses of their election and victory. 3. But I will relate one occurrence as an example. Chaeremon, (3) who was very old, was bishop of the city called Nilus. He fled with his wife (4) to the Arabian mountain (5) and did not return. And though the brethren searched diligently they could not find either them or their bodies. 4. And many who fled to the same Arabian mountain were carried into slavery by the barbarian Saracens. Some of them were ransomed with difficulty and at a large price others have not been to the present time. I have related these things, my brother, not without an object, but that you may understand how many and great distresses came upon us. Those indeed will understand them the best who have had the largest experience of them."

5. A little further on he adds: "These divine martyrs among us, who now are seated with Christ, and are sharers in his kingdom, partakers of his judgment and judges with him, received some of the brethren who had fallen away and become chargeable with the guilt of sacrificing. When they perceived that their conversion and repentance were sufficient to be acceptable with him who by no means desires the death of the sinner, but his repentance, having proved them they received them back and brought them together, and met with them and had fellowship with them in prayers and feasts. (6) 6. What counsel then, brethren, do you give us concerning such persons? What should we do? Shall we have the same judgment and rule as theirs, and observe their decision and charity, and show mercy to those whom they pitied? Or, shall we declare their decision unrighteous, and set ourselves as judges of their opinion, and grieve mercy and overturn order?" (7) These words Dionysius very properly added when making mention of those who had been weak in the time of persecution.

CHAPTER XLIII: Novatus, (1) his Manner of Life and his Heresy.

1. After this, Novatus, a presbyter of the church at Rome, being lifted up with arrogance against these persons, as if there was no longer for them a hope of salvation, not even if they should do all things pertaining to a genuine and pure conversion, became leader of the heresy of those who, in the pride of their imagination, call themselves Cathari. (2) 2. Thereupon a very large synod assembled at Rome, (3) of bishops in number sixty, and a great many more presbyters and deacons; while the pastors of the remaining provinces deliberated in their places privately concerning what ought to be done. A decree was confirmed by all, that Novatus and those who joined with him, and those who adopted his brother-hating and inhuman opinion, should be considered by the church as strangers; but that they should heal such of the brethren as had fallen into misfortune, (4) and should minister to them with the medicines of repentance.

3. There have reached us epistles (5) of Cornelius, bishop of Rome, to Fabius, of the church at Antioch, which show what was done at the synod at Rome, and what seemed best to all those in Italy and Africa and the regions thereabout. (6) Also other epistles, written in the Latin language, of Cyprian and those with him in Africa, (7) which show that they agreed as to the necessity of succoring those who had been tempted, and of cutting off from the Catholic Church the leader of the heresy and all that joined with him. 4. Another epistle of Cornelius, concerning the resolutions of the synod, is attached to these; and yet others, (8) on the conduct of Novatus, from which it is proper for us to make selections, that any one who sees this work may know about him. 5. Cornelius informs Fabius what sort of a man Novatus was, in the following words:

"But that you may know that a long time ago this remarkable man desired the episcopate, but kept this ambitious desire to himself and concealed it,--using as a cloak for his rebellion those confessors who had adhered to him from the beginning,-- I desire to speak. 6. Maximus, (9) one of our presbyters, and Urbanus, (10) who twice gained the highest honor by confession, with Sidonius, (11) and Celerinus, (12) a man who by the grace of God most heroically endured all kinds of torture, and by the strength of his faith overcame the weakness of the flesh, and mightily conquered the adversary,-- these men found him out and detected his craft and duplicity, his perjuries and falsehoods, his un-sociability and cruel friendship. And they returned to the holy church and proclaimed in the presence of many, both bishops and presbyters and a large number of the laity, all his craft and wickedness, which for a long time he had concealed. And this they did with lamentations land repentance, because through the persuasions of the crafty and malicious beast they had left the church for the time." A little farther on he says:

7. "How remarkable, beloved brother, the change and transformation which we have seen take place in him in a short time. For this most illustrious man, who bound himself with terrible oaths in nowise to seek the bishopric, (13) suddenly appears a bishop as if thrown among us by some machine. (14) 8. For this dogmatist, this defender of the doctrine of the Church, (15) attempting to grasp and seize the episcopate, which had not been given him from above, chose two of his companions who had given up their own salvation. And he sent them to a small and insignificant corner of Italy, that there by some counterfeit argument he might deceive three bishops, who were rustic and very simple men. And they asserted positively and strongly that it was necessary that they should come quickly to Rome, in order that all the dissension which had arisen there might be appeased through their mediation, jointly with other bishops. 9. When they had come, being, as we have stated, very simple in the craft and artifice of the wicked, they were shut up with certain selected men like himself. And by the tenth hour, when they had become drunk and sick, he compelled them by force to confer on him the episcopate through a counterfeit and vain imposition of hands. Because it had not come to him, he avenged himself by craft and treachery. 10. One of these bishops shortly after came back to the church, lamenting and confessing his transgression. And we communed with him as with a layman, all the people present interceding for him. And we ordained successors of the other bishops, and sent them to the places where they were. 11. This avenger of the Gospel (16) then did not know that there should be one bishop in a catholic church; (17) yet he was not ignorant (for how could he be?) that in it there were forty-six presbyters, seven (18) deacons, seven sub-deacons, (19) forty-two acolyths, (20) fifty- two exorcists, (21) readers, (22) and janitors, (23) and over fifteen hundred widows and persons in distress, all of whom the grace and kindness of the Master nourish. 12. But not even this great multitude, so necessary in the church, nor those who, through God's providence, were rich and full, together with the very many, even innumerable people, could turn him from such desperation and presumption and recall him to the Church." 13. Again, farther on, he adds these words:

"Permit us to say further: On account of what works or conduct had he the assurance to contend for the episcopate? Was it that he had been brought up in the Church from the beginning, and had endured many conflicts in her be- half, and had passed through many and great dangers for religion? Truly this is not the fact. 14. But Satan, who entered and dwelt in him for a long time, became the occasion of his believing. Being delivered by the exorcists, he fell into a severe sickness; and as he seemed about to die, he received baptism by affusion, on the bed where he lay; (24) if indeed we can say that such a one did receive it. 15. And when he was healed of his sickness he did not receive the other things which it is necessary to have according to the canon of the Church, even the being sealed by the bishop. (25) And as he did not receive this, (26) how could he receive the Holy Spirit?" 16. Shortly after he says again:

"In the time of persecution, through cowardice and love of life, he denied that he was a presbyter. For when he was requested and entreated by the deacons to come out of the chamber in which he had imprisoned himself and give aid to the brethren as far as was lawful and possible for a presbyter to assist those of the brethren who were in danger and needed help, he paid so little respect to the entreaties of the deacons that he went away and departed in anger. For he said that he no longer desired to be a presbyter, as he was an admirer of another philosophy." (27) 17. Passing by a few things, he adds the following:

"For this illustrious man forsook the Church of God, in which, when he believed, he was judged worthy of the presbyterate through the favor of the bishop who ordained him to the presbyterial office. This had been resisted by all the clergy and many of the laity; because it was unlawful that one who had been affused on his bed on account of sickness as he had been should enter into any clerical office; (28) but the bishop requested that he might be permitted to ordain this one only." 18. He adds to these yet another, the worst of all the man's offenses, as follows:

"For when he has made the offerings, and distributed a part to each man, as he gives it he compels the wretched man to swear in place of the blessing. Holding his hands in both of his own, he will not release him until he has sworn in this manner (for I will give his own words): 'Swear to me by the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ that you will never forsake me and turn to Cornelius.' And the unhappy man does not taste until he has called down imprecations on himself; and instead of saying Amen, as he takes the bread, he says, I will never return to Cornelius." 20. Farther on he says again:

"But know that he has now been made bare and desolate; as the brethren leave him every day and return to the church. Moses also, the blessed martyr, who lately suffered among us a glorious and admirable martyrdom, while he was yet alive, beholding his boldness and folly, refused to commune with him and with the five presbyters who with him had separated themselves from the church."

21. At the close of his letter he gives a list of the bishops who had come to Rome and condemned the silliness of Novatus, with their names and the parish over which each of them presided. 22. He mentions also those who did not come to Rome, but who expressed by letters their agreement with the vote of these bishops, giving their names and the cities from which they severally sent them. (30) Cornelius wrote these things to Fabius, bishop of Antioch.

CHAPTER XLIV: Dionysius' Account of Serapion.

1. To this same Fabius, who seemed to lean somewhat toward this schism, (1) Dionysius of Alexandria also wrote an epistle. (2) He writes in this many other things concerning repentance, and relates the conflicts of those who had lately suffered martyrdom at Alexandria. After the other account he mentions a certain wonderful fact, which deserves a place in this work. It is as follows:

2. "I will give thee this one example which occurred among us. There was with us a certain Serapion, (3) an aged believer who had lived for a long time blamelessly, but had fallen in the trial. He besought often, but no one gave heed to him, because he had sacrificed. But he became sick, and for three successive days continued speechless and senseless. 3. Having recovered somewhat on the fourth day he sent for his daughter's son, and said, 'How long do you detain me, my child? I beseech you, make haste, and absolve me speedily. Call one of the presbyters to me.' And when he had said this, he became again speechless. And the boy ran to the presbyter. But it was night and he was sick, and therefore unable to come. 4. But as I had commanded that persons at the point of death, if they requested it, and especially if they had asked for it previously, should receive remission, that they might depart with a good hope, he gave the boy a small portion of the eucharist, telling him to soak (4) it and let the drops fall into the old man's mouth. (5) 5. The boy returned with it, and as he drew near, before he entered, Serapion again arousing, said, 'Thou art come, my child, and the presbyter could not come; but do quickly what he directed, and let me depart.' Then the boy soaked it and dropped it into his mouth. And when he had swallowed a little, immediately he gave up the ghost. 6. Is it not evident that he was preserved and his life continued till he was absolved, and, his sin having been blotted out, he could be acknowledged (6) for the many good deeds which he had done?"

Dionysius relates these things.

CHAPTER XLV: An Epistle of Dionysius to Novatus.

But let us see how the same man addressed Novatus (1) when he was disturbing the Roman brotherhood. As he pretended that some of the brethren were the occasion of his apostasy and schism, as if he had been forced by them to proceed as he had, (2) observe the manner in which he writes to him:

"Dionysius to his brother Novatus, greeting. If, as thou sayest, thou hast been led on unwillingly, thou wilt prove this if thou retirest willingly. For it were better to suffer everything, rather than divide the Church of God. Even martyrdom for the sake of preventing division would not be less glorious than for refusing to worship idols. Nay, to me it seems greater. For in the one case a man suffers martyrdom 291 for the sake of his own soul; in the other case in behalf of the entire Church. And now if thou canst persuade or induce the brethren to come to unanimity, thy righteousness will be greater than thine error, and this will not be counted, but that will be praised. But if thou canst not prevail with the disobedient, at least save thine own soul. I pray that thou mayst fare well, maintaining peace in the Lord."

This he wrote to Novatus.

CHAPTER XLVI: Other Epistles of Dionysius.

1. He wrote also an epistle to the brethren in Egypt on Repentance. (1) In this he sets forth what seemed proper to him in regard to those who had fallen, and he describes the classes of transgressions. 2. There is extant also a private letter on Repentance, which he wrote to Conon, (2) bishop of the parish of Hermopolis, and another of an admonitory (3) character, to his flock at Alexandria. Among them also is the one written to Origen on Martyrdom (4) and to the brethren at Laodicea, (5) of whom The- lymidres was bishop. He likewise sent one on Repentance to the brethren in Armenia, (6) of whom Merozanes was bishop. 3. Besides all these, he wrote to Cornelius of Rome, when he had received from him an epistle against Novatus. (7) He states in this that he had been invited by Helenus, (8) bishop of Tarsus, in Cilicia, and the others who were with him, Firmilianus, (9) bishop in Cappadocia, and Theoctistus, (10) of Palestine, to meet them at the synod in Antioch, where some persons were endeavoring to establish the schism of Novatus. 4. Besides this he writes that he had been informed that Fabius (11) had fallen asleep, and that Demetrianus (12) had been appointed his successor in the episcopate of Antioch. He writes also in these words concerning the bishop of Jerusalem: "For the blessed Alexander (13) having been confined in prison, passed away happily." 5. In addition to this there is extant also a certain other diaconal epistle of Dionysius, sent to those in Rome through Hippolytus. (14) And he wrote another to them on Peace, and likewise on Repentance; (15) and yet another to the confessors there who still held to the opinion of Novatus. (16) He sent two more to the same persons after they had returned to the Church. And he communicated with many others by letters, which he has left behind him as a benefit in various ways to those who now diligently study his writings. (17)

Taken from "The Early Church Fathers and Other Works" originally published by Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. in English in Edinburgh, Scotland, beginning in 1867. (LNPF II/I, Schaff and Wace). The digital version is by The Electronic Bible Society, P.O. Box 701356, Dallas, TX 75370, 214-407-WORD.