Teresa of Jesus (Teresa of Avila)
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: TERESA OF JESUS (TERESA OF AVILA), SAINT
Teresa of Jesus, Saint (Teresa Sanchez Cepeda D Avila Y Ahumada), b. at Avila, Old Castile, 28 March, 1515; d. at Alba de Tormes, 4 Oct., 1582. The third child of Don Alonso Sanchez de Cepeda by his second wife, Dona Beatriz Davila y Ahumada, who died when the saint was in her fourteenth year, Teresa was brought up by her saintly father, a lover of serious books, and a tender and pious mother. After her death and the marriage of her eldest sister, Teresa was sent for her education to the Augustinian nuns at Avila, but owing to illness she left at the end of eighteen months, and for some years remained with her father and occasionally with other relatives, notably an uncle who made her acquainted with the Letters of St. Jerome, which determined her to adopt the religious life, not so much through any attraction towards it, as through a desire of choosing the safest course. Unable to obtain her father's consent she left his house unknown to him on Nov., 1535, to enter the Carmelite Convent of the Incarnation at Avila, which then counted 140 nuns. The wrench from her family caused her a pain which she ever afterwards compared to that of death. However, her father at once yielded and Teresa took the habit.
After her profession in the following year she became very seriously ill, and underwent a prolonged cure and such unskillful medical treatment that she was reduced to a most pitiful state, and even after partial recovery through the intercession of St. Joseph, her health remained permanently impaired. During these years of suffering she began the practice of mental prayer, but fearing that her conversations with some world-minded relatives, frequent visitors at the convent, rendered her unworthy of the graces God bestowed on her in prayer, discontinued it, until she came under the influence, first of the Dominicans, and afterwards of the Jesuits. Meanwhile God had begun to visit her with "intellectual visions and locutions", that is manifestations in which the exterior senses were in no way affected, the things seen and the words heard being directly impressed upon her mind, and giving her wonderful strength in trials, reprimanding her for unfaithfulness, and consoling her in trouble. Unable to reconcile such graces with her shortcomings, which her delicate conscience represented as grievous faults, she had recourse not only to the most spiritual confessors she could find, but also to some saintly laymen, who, never suspecting that the account she gave them of her sins was greatly exaggerated, believed these manifestations to be the work of the evil spirit. The more she endeavored to resist them the more powerfully did God work in her soul. The whole city of Avila was troubled by the reports of the visions of this nun. It was reserved to St. Francis Borgia and St. Peter of Alcantara, and afterwards to a number of Dominicans (particularly Pedro Ibanez and Domingo Banez), Jesuits, and other religious and secular priests, to discern the work of God and to guide her on a safe road.
The account of her spiritual life contained in the "Life written by herself" (completed in 1565, an earlier version being lost), in the "Relations", and in the "Interior Castle", forms one of the most remarkable spiritual biographies with which only the "Confessions of St. Augustine" can bear comparison. To this period belong also such extraordinary manifestations as the piercing or transverberation of her heart, the spiritual espousals, and the mystical marriage. A vision of the place destined for her in hell in case she should have been unfaithful to grace, determined her to seek a more perfect life. After many troubles and much opposition St. Teresa founded the convent of Discalced Carmelite Nuns of the Primitive Rule of St. Joseph at Avila (24 Aug., 1562), and after six months obtained permission to take up her residence there. Four years later she received the visit of the General of the Carmelites, John-Baptist Rubeo (Rossi), who not only approved of what she had done but granted leave for the foundation of other convents of friars as well as nuns. In rapid succession she established her nuns at Medina del Campo (1567), Malagon and Valladolid (1568), Toledo and Pastrana (1569), Salamanca (1570), Alba de Tormes (1571), Segovia (1574), Veas and Seville (1575), and Caravaca (1576). In the "Book of Foundations" she tells the story of these convents, nearly all of which were established in spite of violent opposition but with manifest assistance from above. Everywhere she found souls generous enough to embrace the austerities of the primitive rule of Carmel. Having made the acquaintance of Antonio de Heredia, prior of Medina, and St. John of the Cross (q.v.), she established her reform among the friars (28 Nov., 1568), the first convents being those of Duruelo (1568), Pastrana (1569), Mancera, and Alcale de Henares (1570).
A new epoch began with the entrance into religion of Jerome Gratian, inasmuch as this remarkable man was almost immediately entrusted by the nuncio with the authority of visitor Apostolic of the Carmelite friars and nuns of the old observance in Andalusia, and as such considered himself entitled to overrule the various restrictions insisted upon by the general and the general chapter. On the death of the nuncio and the arrival of his successor a fearful storm burst over St. Teresa and her work, lasting four years and threatening to annihilate the nascent reform. The incidents of this persecution are best described in her letters. The storm at length passed, and the province of Discalced Carmelites, with the support of Philip II, was approved and canonically established on 22 June, 1580. St. Teresa, old and broken in health, made further foundations at Villnuava de la Jara and Palencia (1580), Soria (1581), Granada (through her assistant the Venerable Anne of Jesus), and at Burgos (1582). She left this latter place at the end of July, and, stopping at Palencia, Valldolid, and Medina del Campo, reached Alba de Torres in September, suffering intensely. Soon she took to her bed and passed away on 4 Oct., 1582, the following day, owing to the reform of the calendar, being reckoned as 15 Oct, After some years her body was transferred to Avila, but later on reconveyed to Alba, where it is still preserved incorrupt. Her heart, too, showing the marks of the Transverberation, is exposed there to the veneration of the faithful. She was beatified in 1614, and canonized in 1622 by Gregory XV, the feast being fixed on 15 October.
St. Teresa's position among writers on mystical theology is unique. In all her writings on this subject she deals with her personal experiences, which a deep insight and analytical gifts enabled her to explain clearly. The Thomistic substratum may be traced to the influence of her confessors and directors, many of whom belonged to the Dominican Order. She herself had no pretension to found a school in the accepted sense of the term, and there is no vestige in her writings of any influence of the Aeropagite, the Patristic, or the Scholastic Mystical schools, as represented among others, by the German Dominican Mystics. She is intensely personal, her system going exactly as far as her experiences, but not a step further.
A word must be added on the orthography of her name. It has of late become the fashion to write her name Teresa or Teresia, without "h", not only in Spanish and Italian, where the "h" could have no place, but also in French, German, and Latin, which ought to preserve the etymological spelling. As it is derived from a Greek name, <Tharasia>, the saintly wife of St. Paulinus of Nola, it should be written Theresia in German and Latin, and Therese in French.
The bibliography of St. Teresa is exceedingly lengthy. Unfortunately, even DE CURZON'S <Bibliographie Theresienne> (Paris,1902) is far too incomplete and inaccurate to be of much use. Here we can only deal with her own writings. The autographs of the life written by herself, and of the <Book of Foundations>, have been published in photo-lithography by DON VINCENTE DE LA FUENTE (Madrid, 1873 and 1880 respectively); the <Interior Castle>, under the direction of CARDINAL LLUCH (Seville, 1882); the <Way of Perfection> (MS. of the Escorial) and the <Visitation of Nunneries> by DON FRANCISCO HERRERO BAYONA (Valladolid, 1883), with a transcript of the MS. of the <Way of Perfection> preserved at Valladolid. Of the remaining works, the <Relations>, the <Exclamations>, the <Conceptions>, the <Maxims>, the <Constitutions>, and the poemms (about thirty-six of these being considered genuine), no autographs, or only small fragments, are known to exist. The <Seven Meditations on the Lord's Prayer> are not authentic. The most recent English translations are by Lewis: <Life and Relations>, ed. ZIMMERMAN (4th ed., London, 1911); <Foundations>, with the <Visitation> and <Constitutions> (London, 1871, a new edition being now in the press). The <Interior Castle>, <Exclamations>, and the <Way of Perfection>, translated by the BENEDICTINES OF STANBROOK, ed. ZIMMERMAN; the two former, London, 1906 (a second edition being now in the press); the third, London, 1911. The <Conceptions of Divine Love>, the <Maxims> and the poems by the same translators and editors, are also in the press. Pending the publication of a complete English edition of the <Letters> we cannot do better than refer the reader to the <Lettres de Sainte Therese, par le R.P. Gregoire de St. Joseph> (3 vols., 2nd ed. 1906). Mention must be made of the new French translation of the works of the saint (with numerous documents and pieces justificatives, not previously published): <Oeuvres completes de Sainte Terese, par les Carmelites du premier monastere de Paris> (6 vols., Paris, 1907-10); <St. Teresa>, ed. BURKE (New York, 1911).
Transcribed by Marie Jutras