Cardinal Deacons hold the lowest of the ranks of Cardinals. Their ranks include officials of the Roman Curia, and theologians honored by the Pope for their contribution to the Church. In the early centuries there were 7 deacons who administered seven districts of the Roman diocese, as well as 7 deacons who assisted in the papal household. Although the rank of Cardinal Deacon numbers more than 14 today, they hold title as if assigned to a church in one of three deaconries of Rome. Cardinal Deacons may advance by promotion to the higher ranks of the College of Cardinals.

Click a name to view a brief biography.

Cardinal Name
Ecclesial Office

Abril y Castello, Santos

Titular Church: San Ponziano

Native Country: Spain

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2012-02-18

Ecclesiastical Office: Vice-Chamberlain Emeritus of Apostolic Chamber

Cardinal Santos Abril y Castello was born on 21 September 1935 in Alfambra, Spain. He was ordained a priest on 19 March 1960 and holds doctorates in the social sciences and in canon law. After qualifying as a papal diplomat in 1967 at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy, Rome, he was appointed secretary at the Apostolic Nunciature in Pakistan then in Turkey. He received episcopal ordination on 16 June 1985, subsequent to his appointment as titular Archbishop of Tamada and Apostolic Nuncio in Bolivia. He served as Apostolic Nuncio in Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. In 1989 he was appointed Nuncio in the then Yugoslavia. He was elected spokesman of the Diplomatic Corps in Belgrade. He served in Argentina, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and most recently, until 2011 in Macedonia. In January 2011 he was appointed Vice-Camerlengo of the of the Holy Roman Church. He has been a member of the Congregation for Bishops and of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. On November 2011 was appointed Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of St Mary Major. On 23 July 2012, he resigned as Vice-Chamberlain of the Apostolic Chamber. Having reached 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector.

Ayuso Guixot, MCCJ, Miguel Ángel

Titular Church: San Girolamo della Carità a Via Giulia

Native Country: Spain

Appointed By: Francis

Appointed On: 10-5-2019

Ecclesiastical Office: President Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue

Card. Ayuso Guixot, 67, was born in Seville, Spain. He professed his final vows as a Comboni Missionary of the Heart of Jesus on 2 May 1980 and was ordained a priest on 20 September of the same year. After obtaining a licence at the Pontifical Institute for Arabic and Islamic studies (PlSAl) in Rome, he was sent to Egypt in 1982 to serve as parish priest in Cairo, where he assisted young Catholic students, migrants and political refugees from Sudan, living in the city. Thanks to this experience in Cairo, he was sent to Sudan during the country’s civil war. While in Sudan he ran a catechetical centre in the Diocese of El-Obeid and taught Islamic studies in Khartoum. Msgr Ayuso Guixot obtained a doctorate in dogmatic theology in 2000 from the University of Granada and taught in Cairo and then later in Rome. In 2006 he became President of PISAI. In 2007 lie was named a consultor of the Ponti-fical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, and on 30 June 2012 was appointed its Secretary by Benedict XVI. Msgr Ayuso Guixot was ordained a bishop by Pope Francis on 19 March 2016 and assigned the titular Episcopal See of Luperciana. On 25 May 2019 he was appointed President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. Due to his close involvement in the workings of the Document on Human Fraternity for World Peace and Living Together, Msgr Ayuso Guixot was appointed one of the Holy See’s representatives to the higher committee established to meet the document’s objectives. He was also elected President of the Committee by its members.

L'Osservatore Romano, 11 October 2019

Baldisseri, Lorenzo

Titular Church: Sant'Anselmo all'Aventino

Native Country: Italy

Appointed By: Pope Francis

Appointed On: 2014-02-22

Ecclesiastical Office: Secretary General of the Synod of Bishops

Lorenzo Baldisseri was born in San Pietro in Campo, Barga, Italy, on 29 September 1940. The youngest of seven children, he entered the seminary in Pisa, where in addition to theology and philosophy he also studied piano. He was ordained a priest on 29 June 1963. He holds a licence in dogmatic theology and a doctorate in canon law. In 1971 he entered the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy where he graduated two years later. He also studied at the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music and then studied polyphony and sacred music with Domenico Bartolucci. When he entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See in 1973 he was sent to Guatemala and El Salvador as an official. One year later he was promoted to secretary. Subsequently he worked in the nunciatures of Japan, Brazil, Paraguay and France. Between 1986 and 1991 he served at the Pontifical representation to Zimbabwe. In 1991 he was sent to Haiti. On 15 January 1992 he was appointed titular Archbishop of Diocletiana and Apostolic Nuncio to Haiti. He received his episcopal ordination on 7 March of that year. He returned to Haiti on 28 March during a time of social tension and violence, including against the Church. He remained there until 1995, when he was appointed Apostolic Nuncio to Paraguay. In 1999 he was appointed Apostolic Nuncio to India and Nepal, and in 2002 as Nuncio to Brazil. In 2012 he was called to Rome and began serving as Secretary in the Congregation of Bishops. Later he was appointed as consultor to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and Secretary of the College of Cardinals. On 21 September 2013 Pope Francis entrusted to him the General Secretariat of the Synod of Bishops. He is currently a member of the Congregation for Bishops and is a counsellor at the Pontifical Commission for Latin America. Having reached 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector.

Bocos Merino, CMF, Aquilino

Titular Church: Santa Lucia del Gonfalone

Native Country: Spain

Appointed By: Pope Francis

Appointed On: 2018-06-28

Ecclesiastical Office: Titular Archbishop of Urusi

Cardinal Bocos Merino was born 17 May 1938 in Canillas de Esgueva, Valladolid, Spain. He completed his studies at the seminaries of the Claretian Missionaries, where he entered as a postulant in Segovia and went on to the novitiate in Ciudad Real. He made his religious profession for the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary in 1956 and was ordained a priest on 23 May 1963. He holds a degree in philosophy from the Pontifical University of Salamanca, and a diploma in clinical psychology. He has served as: spiritual director at the Colegio Mayor Maronita in Salamanca (1964-1967); spiritual director at the Claretian Theologate, and professor in various educational institutions of the congregation; editor of the Vida Religiosa Magazine (1971-1980); co-founder of the Theological Institute for Religious Life in Madrid and director of the Regina Apostolorum School for theological and catechetical formation (1976-1979; provincial superior of the Claretian Missionaries in Castilla (1980-1985; general counsellor of the Claretian Missionaries (1980-1991). In 1991 he was elected Superior General of the Claretians for two terms and later was re-elected for a second six-year term. From 1991 to 2003, he was a member of the Council of the Union of Superiors General. From 1994 to 2004 he was a member of the Congregation for Consecrated Life. He attended three Synods of Bishops: that for Consecrated Life (1994); the Second Special Assembly for Europe (1999), and that on the role and mission of the Bishop (2001). After the announcement of the Consistory, he was assigned the titular episcopal See of Urusi on 31 May. On the following 16 June he was ordained Archbishop of Urusi in the Parish of Saint Anthony Mary Claret. Having reached 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector.

Calcagno, Domenico

Titular Church: Annunciazione della della Beata Vergine Maria a Via Ardeatina

Native Country: Italy

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2012-02-18

Ecclesiastical Office: President, Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See

Cardinal Domenico Calcagno born on 3 February 1943 in Tramontana di Parodi, Ligure, Italy. He holds a BA in philosophy and a doctorate in dogmatic theology. He was ordained a priest on 25 February 1967. He was rector of the Oratorio di Sant'Erasmo in Genoa-Quinto for 20 years, taught theology at the Major Seminary, Genoa, and fundamental morals at the Interdiocesan Theological Studium, Alessandria. After the promulgation of the new Code of Canon Law he was a member of the working group set up to bring diocesan structures into line with the new Code. In 1985 he was appointed President of the Diocesan Institute for the Support of the Diocesan Clergy of Genoa. He moved to Rome to become secretary of the Italian Presbyteral Commission; national director of the Office for Inter-Church Missionary Cooperation; President of the Central Institute for the Support of the Clergy; Treasurer of the Italian Episcopal Conference and a member of its Council for Economic affairs, President of the College of Auditors of Caritas Italiana and Administrative Councillor of the Vatican Publishing House. He received episcopal ordination on 9 March 2002, subsequent to his appointment as Bishop of Savona-Noli. He was also bishop-delegate of the Ligurian Bishops' Conference. He resigned from the office on 31 August 2007 when the Holy Father appointed him Secretary of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (APSA) with the title of archbishop ad personam. He was appointed President of APSA on 7 July 2011. He retired as President of APSA on 26 June 2018.

Cantalamessa, Raniero

Titular Church: Sant’Apollinare alle Terme Neroniane-Alessandrine

Native Country: Italy

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2020-11-28

Ecclesiastical Office: Preacher of the Papal Household

Cardinal Raniero Cantalamessa was born 22 July 1934 in Colli del Tronto, Italy. He obtained a doctorate in theology in Freiburg, Switzerland, and a degree in classic literature at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Milan. He was ordained a priest on 19 October 1958. Following his studies he became a professor of history of Christian origins and director of the department of religious sciences at the University of the Sacred Heart in Milan. He was a member of the International Theological Commission from 1975 to 1981, and served as a member of the Catholic delegation for dialogue with the Pentecostal Churches for 12 years. In 1979 he left the field of education to dedicate himself full-time to the ministry of the Word. He was appointed Preacher of the Papal Household by John Paul II in 1980, and confirmed in this position by Benedict XVI in 2005, and by Pope Francis in 2013. In this role, each week during Advent and Lent, he offers a meditation to the Bishop of Rome and the Curia. He has been asked to preach in many countries throughout the world. He has received honorary degrees, in law from the University of Notre Dame in South Bend, Indiana, in communication science from the University of Macerata, and in theology from the Franciscan University in Steubenville, Ohio. In addition to books and writings of a scientific nature, he has published numerous books on spirituality, resulting from his preaching to the Papal Household, translated into some 20 languages.  Having reached 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector.

Czerny, S.J., Michael F.

Titular Church: San Michele Arcangelo

Native Country: Czech Republic

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2019-10-05

Ecclesiastical Office: Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development

Card. Czerny, 73, was born in Brno, Czech Republic, and was raised in Montreal, Canada. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1963, and was ordained a priest for the Jesuit Province of Canada 9/6/1973. He earned a doctorate in interdisciplinary studies from the University of Chicago in 1978. In Toronto the following year he founded the Jesuit Centre (now Forum) for Social Faith and Justice, which he led until 1989 when he was transferred to San Salvador following the assassination of six of his confreres at the Central American University. There he served as vice rector and director of the university, as well as director of its Institute for Human Rights. He acted as mediator in the negotiations that led to the end of El Salvador’s civil war in 1992, and in 1995 he participated in a United Nations investigative commission on the coup d’etat in Haiti. From 1992 to 2002 he served as Secretary for Social Justice at the Jesuits’ general curia in Rome. He was transferred to Africa where he became the founding director of the African Jesuit AIDS Network. During his tenure there he also taught at the Hekima College of the Catholic University of Eastern Africa in Nairobi. In 2010 he was called to Rome by Cardinal Peter Turkson, President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, to serve as an advisor. In 2016 the Council was incorporated into what is now the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development. Czerny was appointed Undersecretary of the Dicastery’s Section for Migrants and Refugees in 2017. On 1 January 2022, he was appointed Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development.
 

Farrell, Kevin Joseph

Titular Church: San Giuliano Martire

Native Country: Ireland

Appointed By: Francis

Appointed On: 2016-11-19

Ecclesiastical Office: Chamberlain (Camerlengo) of the Apostolic Chamber

Card. Farrell was born, 2 September 1947, in Dublin, Ireland. He attended the University of Salamanca in Spain, then the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome. He obtained licenses in philosophy and theology at the pontifical University of St Thomas Aquinas (Angelicum) in Rome. He later completed an MBA at the University of Notre Dame in the USA. He entered the Congregation of the Legionaries of Christ in 1966 and was ordained priest on 24 December 1978. He served as chaplain at the University of Monterrey in Mexico, professor of Economics, then as general administrator in charge of the Legionaries of Christ's seminaries and schools in Italy, Spain and Ireland. He served in pastoral ministry at Saint Bartholomew parish, Bethesda, Maryland (1983-1984). In 1984 he was incardinated into the Archdiocese of Washington, where he served in various capacities (1984-2002), including as assistant pastor at Saint Thomas the Apostle parish, director of the Spanish Catholic Center, regent executive director of Charitable Catholic Organizations, secretary for Financial Affairs, pastor of Annunciation parish. He was appointed Titular Bishop of Rusuccuru and Auxiliary of Washington on 28 December 2001, receiving episcopal ordination the following 11 February. Since 2001 he has been vicar general for Administration and moderator of the Curia. On 6 March 2007 he was appointed Bishop of Dallas. On 15 August 2016, Pope Francis appointed him Prefect of the new Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life. On 14 February 2019, he was appointed Chamberlain (Camerlengo) of the Apostolic Chamber. 

Feroci, Enrico

Titular Church: Santa Maria del Divino Amore a Castel di Leva

Native Country: Italy

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2020-11-28

Ecclesiastical Office: Titular Archbishop of Cures Sabinorum; parish priest of Holy Mary of the Divine Love, Castel di Leva, Italy

Cardinal Enrico Feroci was born 27 August 1940 in Pizzoli, Italy. He studied at the Pontifical Roman Minor Seminary and then at the Roman Major Seminary. After studying philosophy, theology and law at the Pontifical Lateran University, he obtain a Master's Degree in community education and psychology from the Pontifical Salesian University and Rome's Sapienza University. He was ordained a priest on 13 March 1965, and served as prefect in the community at the Pontifical Roman Minor Seminary and then assistant and treasurer at the Major Seminary (1966-1968). In 1968 he returned to the Minor Seminary as vice-rector. In 1976 he became associate parish priest of San Frumenzio ai Prati Fiscali and in 1981, parish priest of the same parish. He has served as: Prefect of the IX Prefecture; Secretary of the Northern Sector; member of the Presbyteral Council, of the Council for economic affairs, and of the College of Consultors of the diocese. He left San Frumenzio to serve as parish priest of Sant'Ippolito from 2004 to 2009. On 1 September 2009 the Cardinal Vicar appointed him director of the diocesan Caritas. He was nominated as president of the “Caritas Roma” foundation and of he antiusury foundation “Salus Populi Romani.” He then served as president of the “Rome Solidarity Cooperative” and Consultor of the Pontifical Council of Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People. On 10 November 2017 he as appointed president of the public clerical association of the Oblate Sons of Our Lady of Divine Love, and made him rector of the Seminary of Our Lady of Divine Love (1 September 2018). He was appointed Canon and Camerlengo of the Papal Lateran Basilica. On 1 September 2019 he was appointed parish priest of Holy Mary of Divine Love in Castel di Leva. He was ordained a bishop on 15 November 2020 subsequent to his appointment as titular Archbishop of Cures Sabinorum. Having reached 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector.

Fitzgerald, M. Afr., Michael Louis

Titular Church: Santa Maria in Portico (Campitelli)

Native Country: United Kingdom

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2019-10-05

Ecclesiastical Office: Archbishop emeritus of Nepte, Apostolic Nuncio

Card. Fitzgerald, 82, was born in Walsall, United Kingdom. He was ordained a priest for the White Fathers missionaries on 3 February 1961. He earned a doctorate in theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome in 1965, and a degree in Arabic from the School of Oriental and African Studies of the University of London in 1968. He taught at the Pontifical Institute for Arab and Islamic Studies (PISAl) in Rome from 1968 to 1978, and was appointed director of the Institute in 1972. In the meantime he also taught at the University of Makerere, Kampala, Uganda from 1969 to 1971. He served in pastoral ministry for two years in Sudan, and was a member of the general council of the Society of Missionaries of Africa from 1980 to 1986. In February 1987, after some 10 years as a consultor, he was appointed Secretary of the Vatican Secretariat for Non-Christians, which later became the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue. He was appointed a bishop by Benedict XVI, who assigned him the titular Episcopal See of Nepte. He received his episcopal ordination on 6 January 1992. On 15 February 2006 he was appointed Apostolic Nuncio in Egypt, a post he held until October 2012. He has since retired to his congregation’s home in Liverpool, England.  Having reached 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector.

Frezza, Fortunato

Titular Church:

Native Country: Italy

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2022-08-27

Ecclesiastical Office: Priest of Viterbo, Italy

Gambetti, Mauro

Titular Church: Santissimo Nome di Maria al Foro Traiano

Native Country: Italy

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2020-11-28

Ecclesiastical Office: President of the Fabric of St Peter

Cardinal Mauro Gambetti was born 27 October 1965 in Castel San Pietro Terme, Bologna, Italy. After obtaining a degree in mechanical engineering at the University of Bologna, in September 1992 he officially began his journey with the Order of Friars Minor Conventual for whom, after a novitiate year, he professed his temporary vows on 29 August 1995, and his perpetual vows on 20 September 1998. He obtained a degree in theology at the Theological Institute of Assisi, and then a license in theological anthropology at the Theological Faculty of Central Italy in Florence. He was ordained a priest on 8 January 2000, and served as animator of youth and vocational ministry for Emilia-Romagna and from 2005 to 2009 as custos of the Conventual Franciscan community in the Shrine of the Very Holy Crucifix in Longiano. In 2009 he was elected Provincial Minister of the Province of Saint Anthony of Padua. On 22 February 2013 he became General Custodian of the General Custody of the Sacred Convent of Saint Francis in Assisi, a four year term which was reconfirmed in 2017. He was appointed episcopal vicar for pastoral ministry of Saint Francis Papal Basilica and of other places of worship run by the Friars Minor Conventual in the same  diocese. He was elected President of the Inter-Mediterranean Federation of Provincial Ministers of his Order in September 2017. He was appointed President of the Fabric of St Peter on 20 February 2021 and Archpriest of St Peter Basilica.

Ghirlanda, Gianfranco, S.J.

Titular Church:

Native Country:

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2022-08-27

Ecclesiastical Office: Priest of Society of Jesus

Grech, Mario

Titular Church: Santi Cosma e Damiano

Native Country: Malta

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2020-11-20

Ecclesiastical Office: Secretary General of the Synod of Bishops

Cardinal Mario Grechi, 63, was born in Qala, Malta. After completing his studies in philosophy and theology at the Sacred Heart Seminary of Gozo, he was ordained a priest on 16 May 1984. Studying in Rome, he obtained a license in canon and civil law at the Lateran University and a doctorate in canon law at the Angelicum. He returned to Malta and excised his ministry at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Blessed Virgin of Ta’ Pinu in Gozo. He served as: parish priest in the parishes of Ta’ Kercem and of Saint Lawrence; as Judicial Vicar of the diocese and of the ecclesiastical Tribunal of Malta; as a teacher of canon law at the seminary and as a member of the College of consultors, of the Presbyteral Council and of the diocesan commissions for theology, family and social communications. On 26 November 2005 Pope Benedict XVI appointed him Bishop of Gozo, a ministry he continued until 2009. Between 2008 and 2009 he launched the diocesan mission and made several pastoral visits to the Maltese communities in the USA, Albania, Canada, Brazil Australia and Peru. He was appointed Pro-Secretary General of the Synod of Bishops by Pope Francis on 2 October 2019. On 28 April 2020, he was appointed a member of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity and on 15 September the same year, Secretary General of the Synod of Bishops.

Grech, Prosper, O.S.A.

Titular Church: Santa Maria Goretti

Native Country: Malta

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2012-02-18

Ecclesiastical Office: Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria Goretti

Cardinal Prosper Grech was born on 24 December 1925 in Birgu, Malta. He was baptized with the name Stanley, which was changed to Prosper when he entered the Order of St Augustine in 1943. During the Second World War he served in the artillery. He was ordained a priest on 25 March 1950. He holds a licence and a doctorate in theology and a licence in Sacred Scripture. He has also studied Hebrew and Maltese literature. For two years he taught theology at the Augustinian College, then at the Mater Admirabilis College, Malta. In 1965 he was appointed dean of the Augustinian Theological Institute. In 1969 he founded the "Augustinianum" Institute for Patristic Studies, where he was dean from 1971-79. In 1984 he was appointed consultor to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, then in 1998 the then Prefect Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger sent him to India as Apostolic Visitator of seminaries. In 2003 he was appointed a member of the Pontifical Theological Academy and, in 2004, a member of the Pontifical Biblical Commission. He is a member of the Studiorum Novi Testamenti Societas and of the International Association of Patristic Studies. He received episcopal ordination on 8 February 2012. He was elevated to Cardinal on 18 February 2012 and on 21 April installed as Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria Goretti.

Harvey, James Michael

Titular Church: San Pio V a Villa Carpegna

Native Country: USA

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2012-11-24

Ecclesiastical Office: Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of St Paul Outside-the-Walls

Cardinal James Michael Harvey was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the United States of America on 20 October 1949. He studied at the seminary in his hometown before being sent to complete his formation in Rome. He lived at the Pontifical North American College and earned a degree in canon law. He was one of the 359 priests to be ordained by Paul VI on 29 June 1975, the 12th anniversary of his election to the papal throne, and was incardinated in his Archdiocese of Milwaukee. He studied at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy in Rome and entered the Diplomatic Service of the Holy See on 25 March 1980. He served for two years at the Pontifical Representation in the Dominican Republic and then, as a Nunciature Counsellor, began his service in the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State in 1982. John Paul II appointed him Assessor for General Affairs on 22 July 1997 and the following November he was named a member of the Committee for the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000. On 7 February 1998, Pope Wojtyla appointed him Prefect of the Pontifical Household and ordained him a bishop on 19 March 1998 in St Peter's Basilica, after assigning him the titular episcopal see of Memphis. Five years later, on 29 September 2003, the Pope raised him to the dignity of Archbishop. The new Cardinal is a member of the Knights of Colombus and an honorary member of the Circolo San Pietro [St Peter's Circle]. He has received several decorations, including the "Gran Cruz de la Real Orden de Isabel la Católica" of Spain, and the "Cavalierato di Gran Croce del' Ordine del Merito" of the Italian Republic. He was responsible for promoting the restoration of the papal apartment in Castel Gandolfo and another room in the Vatican, as well as of the residence currently assigned to the Prefect of the Pontifical Household. This is in fact the historical dwelling of Pope Julius II and its original decorations date back to the early 16th century. On 23 November 2012 he was appointed Archpriest of the Papal Basilica of St Paul's Outside-the-Walls. The more than thirty years that Cardinal Harvey has spent at the service of the Holy See as a direct collaborator of the Roman Pontiff makes him one of the best known figures in the life of the Church. In his office as Prefect of the Pontifical Household, since 1998 he has accompanied John Paul II and Benedict XVI at all their audiences and public and private visits in the Vatican, Rome and Italy.

Krajewski, Konrad

Titular Church: Santa Maria Immacolata all’Esquilino

Native Country: Poland

Appointed By: Pope Francis

Appointed On: 2018-06-28

Ecclesiastical Office: Apostolic Almoner

Cardinal Krajewski was born 25 November 1963 in Łódź, Poland. He entered the Diocesan Seminary of Łódź in 1982. He was ordained priest on 11 June 1988, after obtaining a degree in theology from the Catholic University of Lublin. For two years he served as parish vicar, first in Rusiec and then in Łódź. On 5 March 1993 he obtained a license in Sacred Liturgy from the Saint Anselm Liturgical Institute in Rome. On 10 March 1995 he received a degree in theology, with a specialization in liturgy, from the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas. He worked in the Office of Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff and was chaplain to La Sapienza University's Orthopaedic and Traumatological Clinic. In 1995, he returned to his diocese where he served as master of ceremonies for the Archbishop and taught liturgy at the diocesan seminary, where he served as prefect. He also taught liturgy at the Franciscan and Salesian Seminaries, and at the Warsaw Academy. In 1998 he returned to Rome where he served at the Office of Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff. On 12 May 1999 he was appointed Papal Master of Ceremonies. On 3 August 2013 he was appointed Almoner of His Holiness and titular Archbishop of Benevento. He received episcopal ordination on 17 September 2013. He was created and proclaimed Cardinal by Pope Francis in the consistory of 28 June 2018, with the title of the Diaconate of Santa Maria Immacolata all'Esquilino.

Ladaria Ferrer, SJ, Luis

Titular Church: Sant’Ignazio di Loyola a Campo Marzio

Native Country: Spain

Appointed By: Pope Francis

Appointed On: 2018-06-28

Ecclesiastical Office: Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

Cardinal Ladaria Ferrer was born 19 April 1944 In Manacor, Diocese of Mallorca, Spain. He obtained a law degree from the University of Madrid and entered the Society of Jesus on 17 October 1966. He completed studies in philosophy and theology at the Comillas Pontifical University, Madrid, and at the Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. He was ordained priest 29 July 1973 and obtained a doctorate in theology from the Pontifical Gregorian University, Rome, in 1975. He has served as: professor of dogmatic theology at the Comillas Pontifical University (1975); professor of dogmatic theology at the Faculty of Theology of the Pontifical Gregorian University (1984) and later, vice-rector of the same institution (1986-1994); member of the International Theological Commission (1992-1997) and later (2004-2009) secretary general of the same Commission. On 9 July 2008 he was assigned the titular See of Thibica and appointed Secretary of the Congregation for the doctrine of the Faith. He was ordained bishop on the following 26 July. On 1 July 2017 he was appointed Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, and President of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, of the Pontifical Biblical Commission and of the International Theological Commission. Created and proclaimed Cardinal by Pope Francis in the consistory of 28 June 2018, of the Diaconate of Sant’Ignazio di Loyola a Campo Marzio.

Lozano Barragan, Javier

Titular Church: Deacon of St. Michael the Archangel

Native Country: Mexico

Appointed By: John Paul II

Appointed On: 2003-10-21

Ecclesiastical Office: President Emeritus Pontifical Council for Health Care Workers

Cardinal Javier Lozano Barragan was born on January 26, 1933, in Mexico. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1955. After his ordination, he became responsible for the permanent formation of the diocesan clergy. He also became president of the Mexican Theological Society, and director of the Institute of Pastoral Theology of the Episcopal Conference of Latin America. On 15 August 1979, he was ordained bishop, as Titular Bishop of Thinisia in Numidia, then appointed Bishop of Zacatecas, México on 28 October 1984, from which office he resiged on 31 October 1996 and was appointed president of the Pontifical Council for Health Care Workers on 7 January 1997. He was created a cardinal on October 21, 2003, at which time he became the titular deacon of St. Michael the Archangel. On 18 April 2009, he retired as president of the Pontifical Council for Health Care Workers. Having turned 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector. 

Martino, Renato Raffaele

Titular Church: Deacon of St. Francis of Paola ai Monti

Native Country: Italy

Appointed By: John Paul II

Appointed On: 2003-10-21

Ecclesiastical Office: President Emeritus Council for Justice and Peace

Cardinal Renato Raffaele Martino was born in Italy on November 23, 1932. For 15 years, he served as the Holy See's permanent observer at the United Natons. In 1994, he led a papal delegation to the Cairo Conference on Population and Development. He has been active with the Angelo Roncalli International Committee. After his involvement with the United Nations, he returned to Rome to head the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, 1 October 2002. On October 21, 2003, he was created a cardinal. He is titular Deacon of St. Francis of Paola ai Monti. On 11 March 2006, he was appointed President of Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant Peoples, from which office he retired on 28 February 2009. He retired as President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace on 24 October 2009. Having turned 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector. 

Mendonça, Jose Tolentino de

Titular Church: Santi Domenico e Sisto

Native Country: Portugal

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2019-10-05

Ecclesiastical Office: Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church

Card. Jose Tolentino Calaça de Mendonça, 53, was born in Madeira, Portugal. He obtained a licence in theology from the Universidade Catolica Portoguesa (UCP) in 1989, and was ordained a priest for the Diocese of Funchal on 28 July 1990. In 1992, he obtained a licence in biblical studies. In 2004 he moved to Lisbon, where he served five years as chaplain of the city’s Catholic University. He was then sent to Rome in 2001, following his appointment as Rector of the Pontifical Portuguese College. After completing his doctorate in biblical theology in 2004, he returned to Portugal as a lecturer of New Testament and Theological Aesthetic at UCP in Lisbon, at the same time serving as director of the university’s magazine on theological studies, Didaskalia, and of the Centre for Religious and Cultural studies. After his appointment as consultor of the Pontifical Council for Culture in 2011, he was appointed vice rector of the UCP and the following year was sent as a visiting lecturer to the Catholic Universities of Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte in Brazil. For years he has edited Che cosa sono le nuvole, a column in the weekly news publication “Expresso”. Pope Francis chose him as preacher of the 2018 Lenten Spiritual Exercises for the Roman Curia and, on 26 June 2018, appointed him Archivist and Librarian of the Holy Roman Church. Msgr Calaça de Mendonça was ordained a bishop on 28 July 2018, subsequent to his appointment as titular Archbishop of Suava. Created and proclaimed Cardinal by Pope Francis in the consistory of 5 October 2019, with the Deaconry of Santi Domenico e Sisto.

Monteiro de Castro, Manuel

Titular Church: San Domenico di Guzman

Native Country: Portugal

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2012-02-18

Ecclesiastical Office: Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary

Cardinal Manuel Monteiro de Castro was born on 29 March 1938 in Santa Eufémia de Prazins, Portugal. He holds a doctorate in canon law and a diploma in diplomacy and is a lawyer of the Sacred Roman Rota. He was ordained a priest on 9 July 1961 and exercised his priestly ministry in the Archdiocese of Braga. He entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See and served in Guatemala, Vietnam, Cambodia, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Mexico. He was appointed Apostolic Nuncio in Belgium, Luxembourg and the European Community. He received episcopal ordination on 23 March 1985, subsequent to his appointment as titular Archbishop of Benevento, as Apostolic Nuncio in various countries in the Antilles and as Apostolic Delegate in others. He was also Apostolic Nuncio in Honduras, El Salvador, until 1998 when he was transferred to South Africa and Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland, then from 2000 to 2009 in Spain and in Andorra. He was also Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the World Tourism Organization and has been Secretary of the Congregation for Bishops and of the College of Cardinals since 2009. The Pope appointed him Major Penitentiary on 5 January 2012. Having turned 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector. 

Monterisi, Francesco

Titular Church: St. Paul alla Regola

Native Country: Italy

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2010-11-20

Ecclesiastical Office: Archpriest of the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls

Cardinal Francesco Monterisi was born in Barletta, Italy, 28 May 1934. He was ordained to the priesthood on 16 March 1957. He earned degrees in theology and canon law, and entered the Vatican's diplomatic service in 1964. He served at nunciatures in Madagascar and Egypt, and in 1970 was assigned to the Vatican Secretariat of State, where he focused on the Middle East. On 24 December 1982, he was appointed Apostolic Pro-Nuntio to South Korea and Titular Archbishop of Alba Maritima. He was ordained Bishop on 6 January 1983. He returned to the Vatican in 1987, again to the Secretariat of State. On 11 June 1993, he was appointed the first Apostolic Nuncio to the newly independent Bosnia-Herzegovina. On 7 March 1998, he was appointed Secretary of the Congregation for Bishops (and of the College of Cardinals), in which office he served till 3 July 2009, when he was appointed Archpriest of the Basilica of St Paul Outside the Walls. He was elevated to Cardinal on 20 November 2010. Having turned 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector. 

Müller, Gerhard Ludwig

Titular Church: Sant'Agnese in Agone

Native Country: Germany

Appointed By: Pope Francis

Appointed On: 2014-02-22

Ecclesiastical Office: Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

Gerhard Ludwig Müller was born in Mainz-Finthen, the Federal Republic of Germany on 31 December 1947. He studied philosophy and theology in Mainz, Munich and Freiburg im Breisgau and earned his doctorate in 1977. He was ordained a priest on 11 February 1978 and began serving as chaplain in several parishes and as a religious education teacher at secondary schools. He qualified as professor in 1985 under Prof. Lehmann. In 1986 he was appointed professor of Catholic dogmatics at the Ludwig-Maximilian University in Munich, where he taught until 2002. He has been active in the spread and preservation of the Catholic faith as a member of the Commission for Doctrine and Faith of the German Bishops' Conference since 1990, and became a member of the International Theological Commission in 1998. He has served on the Vatican's Synod of European Bishops and International Bishops' Synod in Rome. His research work focuses on ecumenism, modern age theology, theological hermeneutics and ecclesiology. On 24 November 2002 he was ordained a bishop, subsequent to his appointment as Bishop of Regensburg. He played a key role in preparations for Pope Benedict's visit to Regensburg in 2006. He has served as president of the Commission for Ecumenical Relations of the German Bishops' Conference and resumed theological discussions between the German Bishops' Conference and the Moscow Patriarchate. In 2005 he carried out a reform of the diocesan lay apostolates from both a canon law and a pastoral perspective. Then in December 2008 he was appointed as Catholic head to the International Lutheran/Roman Catholic Commission on Unity for the fourth dialogue phase. He also founded the Pope Benedict XVI Institute. Benedict XVI appointed him Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith and President of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei, of the Biblical Commission and of the International Theological Commission, elevating him at the same time to the dignity of archbishop. He was created and proclaimed Cardinal by Pope Francis in the consistory of 22 February 2014, of the Deaconry of Sant’Agnese in Agone.

Nycz, Kazimierz

Titular Church: Sts. Sylvester and Mariano ai Monti

Native Country: Poland

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2010-11-20

Ecclesiastical Office: Archbishop of Warsaw

Cardinal Kazimierz Nycz was born, 1 February 1950, in Stara Wies, Poland, near Auschwitz. He was ordained to the priesthood for the Archdiocese of Krakow on 20 May 1973. He completed his doctorate at the Catholic University of Lublin and began working in the archdiocesan office for religious education. On 14 May 1988, he was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Krakow and Titular Bishop of Villa Regis. He was ordained Bishop on 4 June 1988. On 9 June 2004, he was appointed Bishop of Koszalin-Kołobrzeg, and on 3 March 2007, Archbishop of Warsaw, where he was installed on 1 April 2007. On 9 June 2007, he was appointed Bishop of Poland for the Faithful of Eastern Rites. He reported to Vatican Radio that the Polish Church’s biggest task was to purify itself of the past (Communist regime) and to devote its energies to preaching the Gospel and helping the poor. He was elevated to Cardinal on 20 November 2010. Created and proclaimed Cardinal by Benedict XVI in the consistory of 20 November 2010, of the Deaconry of Santi Silvestro e Martino ai Monti (Saints Sylvester and Martin ai Monti).

O'Brien, Edwin Frederick

Titular Church: San Sebastiano al Palatino

Native Country: USA

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2012-02-18

Ecclesiastical Office: Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem

Cardinal Edwin Frederick O'Brien was born on 8 April 1939 in the Bronx, New York, USA. He holds a BA in arts, and MAs in divinity and in arts which he earned at St Joseph's Seminary, Yonkers. He was ordained a priest on 29 May 1965. His first assignment was as civilian chaplain at the United States Military Academy at West Point until 1970, when he became an army chaplain with the rank of captain. He learned to fly and to parachute. He was later chaplain at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, and in Vietnam. In 1973 he left the military to study for a doctorate in moral theology at the Angelicum University as a graduate student of the Pontifical North American College in Rome. On his return he served as vice-chancellor for the Archdiocese of New York and associate pastor at St Patrick's Cathedral. In 1979 he coordinated Pope John Paul II's Visit to New York, then served for two years as the archdiocesan communications director. He was rector of St Joseph's for two mandates and rector of the Pontifical North American College in Rome until 1994. He received episcopal ordination on 25 March 1996, subsequent to his appointment as titular Bishop of Thizica and Auxiliary of New York. In April 1997 he was named Coadjutor of the Archdiocese for the Military Services, which serves 1.5 million Catholics in all. The Pope appointed him Archbishop of Baltimore on 12 July 2007, and on 29 August 2011, Pro-Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. On 15 March 2012, he was appointed Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre, and on 16 May he resigned as Apostolic Administrator of Baltimore. Having turned 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector. 

Piacenza, Mauro

Titular Church: St. Paul at the Three Fountains

Native Country: Italy

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2010-11-20

Ecclesiastical Office: Prefect of the Congregation for Clergy

Cardinal Mauro Piacenza was born 15 September 1944 in Genoa, Italy. He was ordained a priest of Genoa on 21 December 1969. He taught religion in public schools, theology, canon law, and a variety of other subjects at public as well as and church-sponsored institutes. In 1990 he began work at the Congregation for Clergy, being promoted to Undersecretary in 2000. On 13 October 2003, he was appointed President of the Pontifical Commission for the Cultural Heritage of the Church and Titular Bishop of Victoriana. He was ordained Bishop, 15 November 2003. On 28 August 2004, he was appointed President of the Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology, and served until 7 May 2007, when he was appointed Secretary of the Congregation for the Clergy and Titular Archbishop of Victoriana. He was promoted to Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy on 7 October 2010. He was created and proclaimed Cardinal by Benedict XVI in the consistory of 20 November 2010, of the Deaconry of San Paolo alle Tre Fontane (Saint Paul at the Three Fountains).

Rauber, Karl-Josef

Titular Church: Sant’Antonio di Padova a Circonvallazione Appia

Native Country: Germany

Appointed By: Pope Francis

Appointed On: 2015-02-14

Ecclesiastical Office: Titular Archbishop of Iubaltiana, Apostolic Nuncio

Karl-Josef Rauber was born in Nürmberg, Germany on 11 April 1934. After studying theology at the University of Mainz, he was ordained a priest on 28 February 1959. For three years he served in the small Catholic community of Nidda, Upper Hesse, before moving to Rome, where he earned a degree in canon law. He then began studying at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy and in 1966 he began his diplomatic service for the Holy See. During this time he served as one of four secretaries to the Substitute of the Secretariat of State, Giovanni Benelli. Both Benelli and Pope Paul VI had a profound impact on his life and ministry. Starting in 1977, he served as counselor at the Nunciatures in Belgium, Luxembourg and Greece. He was ordained a bishop on 6 January 1983, following his appointment as pro-apostolic nunzio in Uganda and titular Archbishop of Iubaltiana. In 1990 he was appointed president of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy and, three years later, he returned to diplomatic service, first in Switzerland and in Liechtenstein (1993-1997), in Hungary and in Moldavia (1997-2003), then in Belgium and Luxembourg (2003-2009), concluding his service in the same countries where he began. He worked in Uganda when the country saw the outbreak of AIDS; in Switzerland he worked to calm tensions between the Diocese of Chur and Bishop Wolfgang Haas; in Hungary he helped mend relations between Church and State after the Communist regime; and, when the pontifical representation was created in Brussels, he worked to balance and divide the work of the two diplomatic institutions in Belgium. In 2009, at the age of 75, he retired and now serves in spiritual ministry at the house of the Sisters of Mary of Schönstatt in Ergenzingen. Created and proclaimed Cardinal by Pope Francis in the consistory of 14 February 2015, he has the title of the Deaconry of Sant’Antonio di Padova a Circonvallazione Appia (St. Anthony of Padua at Circonvallazione Appia). Having reached the age of 80, he is no longer an elector.  

Ravasi, Gianfranco

Titular Church: St. George in Velabro

Native Country: Italy

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2010-11-20

Ecclesiastical Office: President of the Pontifical Council for Culture

Cardinal Gianfranco Ravasi was born, 18 October 1942, in Merate, Italy. He was ordained to the priesthood for the Archdiocese of Milan on 28 June 1966. He taught biblical exegesis at the archdiocesan seminary in Milan and served as a member of the Pontifical Biblical Commission from 1985 to 1995. He was made Prefect of Milan’s Ambrosian Library in 1989, where he served until 3 September 2007, when he was appointed President of the Pontifical Council for Culture, and of the pontifical commissions for Sacred Archaeology and for the Cultural Heritage of the Church. At that time, he was appointed Titular Archbishop of Villamagna in Proconsulari and ordained Bishop on 29 September 2007. Created and proclaimed Cardinal by Benedict XVI in the consistory of 20 November 2010, he has the title of the Deaconry of San Giorgio in Velabro (Saint George in Velabro).

Roche, Arthur

Titular Church:

Native Country: Great Britain

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2022-08-27

Ecclesiastical Office: Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments

Rode, Franc

Titular Church: Deacon of S. Francesco Saverio alla Garbatella.

Native Country: Slovenia

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2006-02-22

Ecclesiastical Office: Prefect Emeritus Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life

Cardinal Franc Rode was born on September 23, 1934, near Ljubljana, Slovenia. He was ordained a priest with the Congregation of the Missions on June 29, 1960. On April 6, 1997 he became Archbishop of Ljubljana, Slovenia. Februray 11, 2004 he was appointed Prefect of the Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life for the Roman Curia. He was elevated to Cardinal by Pope Benedict XVI on March 24, 2006 and appointed Cardinal-Deacon of S. Francesco Saverio alla Garbatella. He retired as Prefect of the Institutes of Consecrated Life on 4 January 2011. Having turned 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector. 

Sandri, Leonardo

Titular Church: Ss. Biagio e Carlo ai Catinari

Native Country: Argentina

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2003-11-24

Ecclesiastical Office: Prefect, Congregation for Oriental Churches

Leonardo Sandri was born in Buenos Aires on 18 November 1943, into a family of Italian origin. He was ordained a priest in 1967. He entered the diplomatic service of the Holy See in 1974 and served in Madagascar, and from 1977 to 1989 with the Vatican Secretariat of State. From 1989 to 1991 he was an adviser in the office of the papal nuncio to the United States and the Organization of American States. On 22 August 1991, he was named prefect of the Pontifical Household. He was made the assessor for general affairs for the Secretariat of State in 1992. He was named papal nuncio to Venezuela in 1997, and ordained archbishop that same year. In 2000 he was named papal nuncio to Mexico, but later that year was called back to Rome to serve as undersecretary of state for general affairs. He was named prefect of the Congregation for Eastern Churches, June 2007. He was elevated to Cardinal, 24 November 2007, by Pope Benedict XVI.

Sarah, Robert

Titular Church: St. John Bosco in Via Tuscolana

Native Country: Guinea

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2010-11-20

Ecclesiastical Office: President of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum

Cardinal Robert Sarah was born 15 June 1945 in Ourous, Guinea. He studied in seminaries in Guinea, France and Senegal. He earned degrees in theology and in Scripture, from the Pontifical Gregorian University in Rome and the Franciscan Biblical Institute in Jerusalem, respectively. He was ordained a priest on 20 July 1969, served as rector of the minor seminary of Kindia and pastor of several parishes. On 13 August 1979, he was appointed Bishop of Conakry, Guinea, and ordained Bishop (at age 34), 8 December 1979. He was appointed Secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, 1 October 2001, and President of the Pontifical Council, Cor Unum, 7 October 2010. He was elevated to Cardinal on 20 November 2010.

Semeraro, Marcello

Titular Church: Santa Maria in Domnica

Native Country: Italy

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2020-11-28

Ecclesiastical Office: Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, Apostolic Administrator of Albano, Italy

Cardinal Marcello Semeraro was born 22 December 1947 in Monteroni di Lecce, Italy. He received his initial formation at the Pontifical Regional Seminary of Apulia “Pius XI” in Molfetta, and completed his studies at the Faculty of Theology of the Pontifical Lateran University in Rome, where he obtained a license and degree in theology. He was ordained priest on 8 September 1971. He taught theology in various institutes and then ecclesiology at the Pontifical Lateran University until he was appointed Bishop of Oria on July 25 1998. In 2001, he served as Special Secretary of the Tenth General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops. On 1 October 2004, he was appointed Bishop of Albano. He served as President of the Commission for the Doctrine of the Faith, Proclamation and Catechesis of the Italian Episcopal Conference, and was appointed a member of the Congregation for the Cases of Saints on 31 January 2009. On 13 April 2013 he as appointed secretary of the “Council of Cardinals” to assist the Holy Father in governing the universal Church. On 4 November 2013 he was appointed Apostolic Administrator ad nutum Sanctae Sedis of the Territorial Abbey of Santa Maria in Grottafrerrata, Italy, and on 4 April 2016, Papal Delegate for the Italian Basilian Order of Grottaferrata. He is a member of the Dicastery for Communication and consultor of the Congregation for Oriental Churches. He was appointed Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints ten days before the announcement of his appointment as Cardinal. 

Simoni, Ernest

Titular Church: Santa Maria della Scala

Native Country: Albania

Appointed By: Francis

Appointed On: 2016-11-19

Ecclesiastical Office: Presbyter of the Archdiocese of Shkodrë-Pult, Albania

Card. Simoni was born, 18 October 1928, in Troshani, Albania. At the age of 10, he entered the College of the Franciscans in Troshani, beginning formation studies for the priesthood. In 1948, at the height of persecution under the communist regime of Enver Hoxha, the Franciscan college was turned into a place of torture for prisoners. The religious brothers were all executed and the novices expelled. He was 20 years old. The regime sent him to teach in a remote village in the mountains, and here he began his missionary work and evangelization. After two years of hard military service (1953-55), he finished his theology studies in secret, and on 7 April 1956 he was ordained a priest in Scutari. At the Bishop's request he was incardinated into the diocese, despite being Franciscan at heart. On 24 December 2963, after Christmas Mass, he was arrested and imprisoned in Scutari, placed in solitary confinement and sentenced to death. The sentence was commuted to 25 years of hard labor. In prison he became the spiritual father of the prisoners. On 22 May 1973 he was again sentenced to death as the alleged instigator of a revolt, but the the sentence was not carried out due to the favorable testimony of his prison guards. He remained in prison for 18 years, 12 of which were spent in the mines. He was freed in 1981, but, as a Catholic priest, still considered an enemy of the people and forced to work in the the Scutari sewers. He exercised his priesthood in secret until the fall the the regime in 1990. Since then he has continued to serve as a humble priest, in many villages, sparing no effort to reconcile many people in dispute and to share his testimony. Having reached 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector.

Stella, Beniamino

Titular Church: Santi Cosma e Damiano

Native Country: Italy

Appointed By: Pope Francis

Appointed On: 2014-02-22

Ecclesiastical Office: Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy

Beniamino Stella was born in Pieve di Soligo, Italy, on 8 August 1941. He is the second of twelve children. After studying in the diocesan seminary, he moved to Rome and earned licences in philosophy and theology. He was ordained a priest on 19 March 1966, by his own uncle who was Archbishop of L'Aquila. In October 1966 he was called to study at the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy. At the Academy he earned a degree in canon law and a doctorate in international law, especially dedicating himself to the study of religious freedom in the documents of the United Nations. In 1970 he was sent to the Apostolic Nunciature of Santo Domingo, and then to the Pontifical Representation to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (at the time Zaire). He was then transferred to Rome where he worked at the Council for the Public Affairs for the Church (today the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State). Subsequently he served as the chargé d'affaires at the Apostolic Nunciature in Malta. In 1983 he began again working at the Council for the Public Affairs for the Church, especially concentrating on Latin America. He received his episcopal ordination on 5 September 1987, subsequent to his appointment as titular Bishop of Midila and as Apostolic Nuncio to Congo-Brazzaville and to Chad, with the dignity of archbishop. Then in December 1992 he was sent as Apostolic Nuncio to Cuba, where he welcomed John Paul II in 1998. One year later he was transferred to Colombia. On 13 October 2007 Benedict XVI appointed him President of the Pontifical Ecclesiastical Academy. He remained in this position until Pope Francis appointed him Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy in September 2013. Having reached 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector.

Tomasi, Silvano Maria

Titular Church: San Nicola in Carcere

Native Country: Italy

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2020-11-28

Ecclesiastical Office: Permanent Observer Emeritus to United Nations Office and Specialized Agencies in Geneva

Cardinal Silvano M. Tomasi was born 12 October 1940 in Casoni de Mussolente, Italy. He was educated in Italy and in the USA, where he studied theology and was ordained a priest on 31 May 1965 in the Congregation of the Missionaries of Saint Charles – Scalabrinians. He obtained a bachelor's degree in social sciences and a doctorate in sociology at Fordham University in New York, and was an assistant professor of sociology at the City University of New York and at the New School for Social Research (1970-1974). As founding director of the Center for Migration Studies, Inc., he established and edited the journal “International Migration Review,” and served as Superior Provincial of his Congregation. From 1983 to 1987 he served as first director of the Office for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Refugees (PCMR) of the US Episcopal Conference. From 1989 to 1996 he served as secretary of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People. On 27 June 1996 he was appointed titular Archbishop of Cercina and Apostolic Nuncio in Ethiopia and Eritrea, Apostolic delegate in Djibouti and Observer at the African Union. On 24 April 1999 he was appointed Archbishop of the titular See of Asolo and on 23 December 2000 was appointed Apostolic Nuncio in Djibouti. On 10 June 2003 he was appointed Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the Office of the United Nations and Specialized Institutions in Geneva and Permanent Observer to the World Trade Organization, a role he fulfilled until 13 February 2016. On 9 April 2016 Pope Francis appointed him a member of the then Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, now the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development. Having reached 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector.

Vegliò, Antonio Maria

Titular Church: San Cesareo in Palatio

Native Country: Italy

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2012-02-18

Ecclesiastical Office: President of the Pontifical Council for Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People

Cardinal Antonio Maria Vegliò was born on 3 February 1938 in Macerata Feltria, Italy. He was ordained a priest on 18 March 1962 and holds a licence in philosophy and theology and a doctorate in canon law. He served at the Apostolic Nunciatures in Peru, the Philippines, Senegal, Great Britain and in the Second Section of the Secretariat of State. He received episcopal ordination on 6 October 1985 subsequent to his appointment as titular Archbishop of Eclano and Apostolic Nuncio in Papua New Guinea and First Nuncio in the Solomon Islands. He was later appointed Apostolic Nuncio in Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde and Mali as well as Apostolic Delegate in Mauritania, then later in the Arabian Peninsula. In 1997 he was appointed Apostolic Nuncio in Lebanon and Kuwait. In 2001 he was appointed Secretary of the Congregation for the Eastern Churches. He has been President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerant People since 2009. Having reached 80 years of age, he is no longer an elector.

Vergez Alzaga, Fernando, L.C.

Titular Church:

Native Country: Spain

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2022-08-27

Ecclesiastical Office: President of Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, President of Governatorate of Vatican City State

Versaldi, Giuseppe

Titular Church: Sacro Cuore di Gesu a Castro Pretorio

Native Country: Italy

Appointed By: Benedict XVI

Appointed On: 2012-02-18

Ecclesiastical Office: President, Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See

Cardinal Giuseppe Versaldi was born on 30 July 1943 at Villarboit, Vercelli, Italy. He was ordained a priest on 29 June 1967. He holds a degree in psychology and a doctorate in canon law. In 1976 he was asked to set up a diocesan family counselling centre, of which he was director, and prompted the family apostolate. He was subsequently also president of the Piedmontese Federation of Christian Counsellors. At the beginning of 1977 he was appointed parish priest of Larizzate, an outlying district of Vercelli. In 1980 he was invited to teach canon law and psychology at the Pontifical Gregorian University, while retaining some of his activities in the Archdiocese of Vercelli. He obtained the title of advocate at the Roman Rota in 1981 and then became a referendary in 1985, a voter in 1990 and, finally, a member in 2007 of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, while also teaching anthropology at the Studium of the Roman Rota. In 1994, he was appointed vicar general of the Archdiocese of Vercelli. With the foundation of Cathedral Treasury Museum and the Chapter Archives, he was appointed both President, representing the Archbishop. He is a member of the administrative board of a savings bank of Vercelli. He received episcopal ordination on 26 May 2007, subsequent to his appointment as Bishop of Alessandria. Four years later he was named President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.

You Heung-sik, Lazzaro

Titular Church:

Native Country: Korea (South)

Appointed by: Francis

Appointed on: 2022-08-27

Ecclesiastical Office: Prefect of Congregation of the Clergy

Zenari, Mario

Titular Church: Santa Maria delle Grazie alle Fornaci fuori Porta Cavalleggeri

Native Country: Italy

Appointed By: Francis

Appointed On: 2016-11-19

Ecclesiastical Office: Apostolic Nuncio to Syria

Cardinal Mario Zenari, born 5 January 1946 in Rosegaferro di Villafranca, Italy, was ordained priest on 5 July 1970. Entered Holy See's diplomatic service in 1980 and served in Pontifical Representations in Senegal, Liberia, Colombia, Germany and Romania. On 7 February 1994, he was appointed counsellor of the Nunciature. On 12 July 1999, Pope John Paul II appointed him Apostolic Nuncio in Côte d'Ivoire and in Niger, as Archbishop with titular See of Zuglio, and on 24 July appointed him Apostolic Nuncio in Burkina Faso. He received episcopal ordination 25 September 1999. 10 May 2004, he was appointed Apostolic Nuncio in Sri Lanka and then Apostolic Nuncio in Syria, by Pope Benedict XVI on 30 December 2008.